Sunday, September 6, 2015

SEP 06, 2015: QUO VADIS, LENR?


If You Don't Know Where You're Going, It's Hard To Get There (Fred Cuellar)

In other words, paraphrasing Robert Frost,how many roads have diverged in the LENR forest? You know the answer of Edmund Storms- see the interview two days ago- and take into account the he is just demonstrating his truth(s) experimentally. You know my answers based on the Six Pillars of LENR+- they are highly speculative and this gives them the counter-architectural status of a castle built in air.

I believe in the wisdom of wise crowds- it has a fantastic creative potential so I am asking you to give us -in comments or mails to me your personal answers- predictions to the question: WHERE ARE YOU GOING. LENR?
Thank you in advance!

I recommend you to read with special attention the short bright techno-science essay by Bob Greenyer (No 5, below)


1) Is a LENR Patent revolution upon us?

2) What says Andrea Rossi
September 5th, 20156 PM

Martin from Belgium:
I am answering to your comment lost in the spam, eventually arrived by email.
1- will be the COP of the E-Cat X higher than the Lugano Hot Cat? Yes (F9)
2- which power will have the serial E-Cat X? That has to be decided, probably we will produce different models (F9)w
3- will it be possible to regulate it to get different temperatures depending on the necessities? Yes
Warm Regards,

3) Nickel -hydrogen reactor? (in Russian)

4) This speaks about Low Energy Nuclear Reaction but from the abstract it is not clear if and how it can be connected to "our" LENR:
Solving The Long-Standing Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions At The Highest Microscopic Level. Annual Continuation And Progress Report, August 15, 2014 -- August 14, 2015

The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive framework that will lead to a fundamental description of both structural properties and reactions of light nuclei in terms of constituent protons and neutrons interacting through nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces. This project will provide the research community with the theoretical and computational tools what will enable: an accurate prediction for fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-based fusion facilities; an improved description of the spectroscopy of exotic nuclei, including light Borromean systems; and, a fundamental understanding of the three-nucleon force in nuclear reaction and nuclei at the drip line.

5) The new fire MK1 by Bob Greenyer
The New Fire MK1 - A controllable reaction driven and moderated by heat, pressure, element ratios, phase states and morphology...
Piantelli says that Nickel must be above a pre-determined lower temperature, evidence suggest this to be Debye if Ni.
Piantelli says that you need to create H- and then use an impulsive action to force it into the Nickel. ( This forms the primary reaction, the "mouse" and from our Celani experiments, a COP of around 1.1. It comes from the transmutation of Ni isotopes.
By forming LiH at 250ºC from LiAlH4 in the Rossi system you create a LOT of H- (which is the first novelty) because LiH is a ionic solution (Li+ H-), all you have to do is kick it into the Nickel by raising the temperature more - which sounds a little weird, but remember you are trying to stimulate a Nuclear process from a low energy thermal one.
From wikipedia, you get the key to the Rossi process.
2 LiH + 2 Al → 2 LiAl + H2 (R3)
R3 is reversible with an equilibrium pressure of about 0.25 bar at 500 °C
Note that in the Industrial Heat patent application, it says you need a pressure of 0.25 bar ( - but the actual reversible reaction is dependent on pressure and temperature as says wiki - so for Parkhomov 2cc of dead volume, 0.5 bar and a different pressure/temp regime may work.
According to Piantelli, some of the protons from H- fail to transmute Nickel and get ejected as protons from 0 up to 6.7 MeV (measured in cloud chamber and calculated). As Unified Gravity Corporation (UGC) has shown ( with earlier Lipinski work on same effect cited in latest Piantelli patent dating back to August 18th 2006 ( you only have to accelerate a proton to less than 225eV into Lithium target to yield around 15MeV and 2 He from 1H + 7Li. This is the secondary reaction - the "Cat". In this system, only Nickel that ejects a proton (and therefore participates in the overall reaction but is unchanged) is truly catalytic - it is this authors conjecture that under the right circumstances 62Ni will be mostly catalytic - or catalytic in the sense of Carbon in the 12C carbon cycle that is to say, if it does accept a number of 1H, it ends up returning to 62Ni.
Both UGC and Piantelli in their specific embodiments, use a low pressure environment to allow the protons to travel the distance to the Lithium before the break down. The second apparent novelty in Rossi's reactor is to have the Lithium in direct contact with the Ni as MFMP discovered following "Bang!". However Piantelli words his patent to cover this
"It is relevant that the secondary material faces the primary material, since, if a further material is present between the primary material and the secondary material, the protons would not go beyond this further material and would not reach the secondary material."
This statement covers lithium in direct contact with Nickel and the patent has a priority date of Apr 26, 2011.
Therefore, UGC have shown that low energy Protons can create Fusion/Fission of 1H and 7Li. Piantelli has provided the Proton accelerator.
The third apparent novelty (inferred by this author) in Rossi's reactor is the "inherent safety" which works over a massive range of temperatures. It is this authors suggestion that this is due to the breakdown of LiH. In part this process initiates the primary reaction by impulsively forcing H- into the Ni at the molten LiH : Ni boundary as noted above. However, at high temperatures, either caused by heat from the primary/secondary reactions or from deliberately over heating the reactor the H- is all driven out into H2 outside the Nickel with Li in between, A small amount will be in Nickel. This will subsequently allow the reactor to rapidly be cooled down and ready for re-start.
The amount of Lithium used will lower Li Al melting and LiH formation / destruction dynamics. Piantelli has also said that the secondary material must be an alloy, one embodiment suggested is Li and Al . He says that it must not be crystalline but in an amorphous state, a liquid solution of these two metals meets this need without the requirement to cool at 1000ºC per second.
So reasons for for active heating in relation to Rossi reactor is
- Maintain Ni above the minimum temperature to enable primary reaction, assumed to be Debye of Nickel
- Maintain the secondary materials in an amorphous, (not solid/crystalline) structure - in this case, liquid
- Allow for thermally driven creation and destruction of H-
- Provide impulsive action to drive available H- into Ni clusters
- Provide active, heat driven shut down of reaction by forcibly removing H- from the Li and keeping it away from Ni
Low pressure is required to allow somewhere for the H- to be released from the LiH to make H2 reservoir that can later be used to make LiH at will.
Adding extra Li will change the melting point of the mixture as well as provide more secondary fuel (See
Important to the process is that Lithium has a Specific Heat Capacity of 3.56 at 25oC in J/goC and H2 has 14.267 - together, they allow for effective engineered ways of getting heat out of the systems main heat source, which is on the boundary layer between Ni and Li.
NOTE: the above may be materially wrong and is posted for education and debate purposes.


  1. Rossi has stated in his patent that the catalyst used in his reactor is a group 10 element which includes Nickel, Palladium(1554C) and Platinum(1768C). This means that the new high temperature unit that Rossi is developing might use platinum or palladium as the catalyst. Both these metals have a melting temperature greater than nickel. Therefore, the Rossi patent might well cover his newest R&D high temperature reactor (XCat) development.

    Like almost all LENR theory developed to date, this Piantelli interpretation is very narrow to the specifics of his engineering solution that he uses to generate his nickel based LENR reaction. On the other hand, the Xcat may well use platinum as the catalyst. The high operating temperature of the Xcat over the melting temperature of nickel implies this when taken together with the Rossi patent in turn implies the use of platinum as the catalytic metal.

    The H- theory of the reaction may well be true for the specific implementation of the Piantelli reactor but it may not be true for the new Xcat reactor being developed by Rossi. The Piantelli theory may be an emergent consequence of a more fundamental LENR reaction mechanism. There may be hundreds of these theories that are restricted by the details of reactor implementation.

    This and many other experiments in LENR have identified many mechanisms that can produce LENR reactions, Ed Storms has identified one of them, Piantelli another, and Rossi yet another. Then there is Holmlid and Dr. George Miley to add...and so on and on. LENR can also occur in both the liquid, gas and plasma phases as shown in experiments done to identify LENR over the quarter century of its most resent phase of experimental history. Identifying the NAE is a process of reduction that identifies the common factor involved over these many currently identified forms of LENR and also the many more forms that are likely to be discovered in the future.

    The fundamental causation of LENR must meet a global set of connected conditions.

    These common and universal conditions include the thermalization of gamma radiation, the rapid to instantaneous stabilization of radioactive isotopes, lack of neutron emissions, and the wide variation of seemingly random transmutation results which includes fusion of light elements into heavier elements and fission of heavy elements into lighter ones, remote reaction at a distance from the location of the LENR reaction(aka NAE), and instantaneous cluster fusion involving huge numbers of sub-reactions that occur instantly and collectively.

    Even though the LENR reaction oftentimes occurs concurrent with the presence of hydrogen isotopes, hydrogen is not required as a fundamental cause of the reaction as shown in the experiments done at Proton 21 where a ball of copper is blasted with a high powered arc discharge, and the carbon dust experiments performed using microwaves conducted by George Egely, the new editor of infinite magazine. In the Proton 21 experiments, the nano-particles involved are copper based and in the Egely case the nano-particles are based on carbon. In the Papp reaction. The nano particles are based on chlorine and noble gases.

    A process of reductionism needs to be applied to the understanding of LENR theory to get to the basic atomic and indivisible essence of the LENR process.

  2. A long extended self-sustain mode is one of the major keys to the E-Cat success. Glad to see Rossi say that E-Cat X will have a higher COP than current E-Cats.

    1. He just has restarted it. In principle as higher the temperature as higher the dynamism of the LENR system and a better the performances. However as higher the temperature as more difficult the material problems.I bet that relatively soon the generators will be 100% ssm ; after a triggering procedure no external sources of energy will be necessary,


    2. I bet on it too. Just like burning a log of wood. It's ignited once. You don't have to keep igniting the wood it in order for it to continue burning.