Thursday, August 20, 2015



E-Cat X continues to be the star- invisible- of the LENR day. It has something to do with a subject I am investigating recently-molten metals in contact with refractory materials and therefore I thought that the following non-LENR paper could be stimulating your creativity Plus it is a means to tell you again that I have accepted and embraced the presence of extreme complexity in science-technology and to suggest you that simplistic concepts, ideas and theories in LENR- are the standard pavements of the way to Hell.

The mystery of molten metal
*Natalia Sobczak1 , Jerzy Sobczak1 , Rajiv Asthana2 and Robert Purgert3 (1. Foundry Research Institute, 30-418 Cracow, Poland; 2. Department of Engineering & Technology, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI 54751, USA; 3. Energy Industries of Ohio, Cleveland, OH 44131, USA)

Recent advances in scientific understanding of high-temperature materials processing using novel experimental methodologies have shed light on the complex role of surface and interface phenomena. New in-situ studies on molten metal/solid ceramic interactions using a unique experimental complex at the Foundry Research Institute, Krakow, have revealed a number of unusual observations in materials processing at high temperatures. We present some such unusual observations and their explanation with reference to liquid metal processing of Al, Ni, and Ti, and their alloys in contact with oxide ceramics. In particular, we focus on the following aspects: primary oxidation of Al from residual water vapor or oxygen, capillary purification to remove surface oxide, substrate protection by CVD carbon, roughening due to spinel whisker formation, inclusions in castings due to mechanical detachment, floatation due to buoyancy forces, and segregation due to directional solidification, modification of the solid surface morphology by metal vapor ahead of the liquid, and the complication due to multi-component alloys melted in crucibles made from complex oxide-based ceramics. In the case of Ti, rapid reactions with oxides result in undesirable volumetric changes that create diffi culty in casting high-quality Ti parts, particularly by investment casting. Nanoscale (e.g., colloidal) coatings based on Y2O3 protect crucibles and hold ladles against such attack. Practical insights and recommendations for materials processing emerging from the fundamental studies on high temperature interfacial phenomena have been described.

(strange coincidence, just when I composed this, I have received paper No 1 about the problem of E-Cat X)

As I already have recommended the hottest E-Cats would go the best with Starlite- the material invented by Maurice Ward *see Wikipedia) but this not available. In my good days I could help out Rossi with high tech ceramics but now I am forgotten
by all chemists colleagues.
The molten metal-ceramics material contact inside the reactor/cell must be well known and managed.
However I have  as soon I have seen the many damaged, burnt, broken Parkhomov cells I have imagined that wireless cells should be immersed in a molten metal
bath. As long time admirer of the Pilkington float glass technology, my first choice was tin. The truth is that I have no direct experience with molten metal baths. (nobody is perfect!)
But I think about a parallelepiped bath, 20 times longer than broad with a guiding channel for the reactor in the middle. At one end of the cell the temperature is 1100C at the other 1500 C- e.g. by heating with gas flame - a linear temperature gradient if possible, some smart mechanism to move the cell with the necessary speed from the "cold" end to the hot end. The problem is how to measure the inner temperature of the reactor/cell in the wireless mode- no thermocouples if possible. Perhaps a dome a bit higher than the level of the molten metal level can help- for advanced pyrometric measurements. Can you, friends suggest and other method of non-contact temperature measurement?
Molten metal inside, molten metal outside the high temperature LENR reactor what a nice technical symmetry! And if happen to work...

PS AXIL's essay reminds me that we have to study very carefully the refractory materials for the new types of E-Cats- see the melting points of the next (after Ni) metals from cobalt to tungsten, they will come.


1) E-Cat X fix requires making new material that does not exist in commerce

2) My LENR lab episode 4 by Freethinker

3) ROSSI is realistic about the price of oil-LENR connection:
Gian Luca
August 19th, 2015 at 3:35 PM

Carissimo A. Oil WTI
today the WTI oil it’s border line on 40$
Wich is your opinions?
Is it possible to relation with LENR?

Andrea Rossi
August 19th, 2015 at 4:09 PM

Gian Luca:
Absolutely not!
Oil price has always been a roller coaster wagon, depending on infinite factors: for example now the fracking oil and gas discovered in the USA in enormous deposits has lowered the price, together with a decrease of a hydrocarbons consume caused by lower levels of industrial production in the last 3 years in all the world.
Warm Regards,

4) video presentation of a historical paper
The President of the Russian Academy of Science, , V.E. Fortov has participated in the research work for Cold Fusion and has published a paper in the year 1992
Президент РАН академик В.Е.Фортов участвовоал в работах по LENR и опубликовал статью в 1992 году

V.E. Fortov et al: "Diagnostics of neutrons in the experiments of Cold Fusion" The Works of the Institute for General Physics (russ,)  vol 36,1992


Rossi might have found the method to control the E-Cat meltdown mechanism, The X-Cat might have destroyed the alumina tube by overheating. How hot can the X-Cat get anyway? 

Rossi might want to try Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (Melting point 2,715 °C (4,919 °F; 2,988 K))

. This compound is a ceramic in which the crystal structure of zirconium dioxide is made stable at room temperature by an addition of yttrium oxide. These oxides are commonly called "zirconia" (ZrO2) and "yttria" (Y2O3), hence the name.

It is difficult to solve the heater material problem because most heater elements will oxidize at high temperatures. This is not true for YSZ. Rossi could heat the YSZ tube directly.

Electroceramics is a class of ceramic materials used primarily for their electrical properties. YSZ is an Electroceramic; it conducts electricity well as an fast ion conductor ceramic that has been used in historically for the glowing rods in Nernst lamps.

The Nernst lamp was an early form of incandescent lamp. Nernst lamps did not use a glowing tungsten filament. Instead, they used a ceramic rod that was heated to incandescence. Because the rod (unlike tungsten wire) would not further oxidize when exposed to air, there was no need to enclose it within a vacuum or noble gas environment; the burners in Nernst lamps could operate exposed to the air and were only enclosed in glass to isolate the hot incandescent emitter from its environment. A ceramic of zirconium oxide - yttrium oxide was used as the glowing rod. 


Thanks to Aaron Murakami

Superconductivity record sparks wave of follow-up physics
Researchers strive to reproduce and understand landmark result.

It works up to -70 C with hydrogen sulphide at high pressure and it even is some theory-based on lattice vibratiosn for it.

1 comment:


    Scientists find possible replacement for platinum as catalyst

    This is another application of the superatom process. Molybdenum and carbon can replace palladium because the carbon provides an isoelectric equivalence between Molybdenum and carbon to mimic palladium. A laser can create a super-catalyst when nanoparticles of Molybdenum are added to a graphene substrate. This might be a good route(AKA inexpensive) to LENR. In the Lugano test, Molybdenum and carbon were found in the fuel load but not the ash.

    Molybdenum + Carbon = Palladium