Thursday, August 27, 2015



It always seems impossible until it is done (Nelson Mandela)

Sometimes it continues to seem so even if somebody claims it was done.


Quantitative data have a lot of intellectual charm. A good example is the fuel recipe given in the brand new US patent of Andrea Rossi:
50% nickel, 30% LIAlH4 and 20% Li. 
I calculated:
Composition for chemical elements, weight: Ni- 50%, Li- 25.5%, H-3.16%, Al-21.33
Relative numbers of atoms- Li-43.5%, H- 37.3%, Ni- 10%. Al- 9.3%- this indeed seems to have some internal logic, H/Li and Ni/Al ~1, but who knows?

So the Rossi Effect is an opera with only 4 roles- H. Li, Al, Ni- please see other cases
here ( Just for the operas lovers, from all these, Bizet's Les Pêcheurs de Perles is my favorite and I like much this aria:  sung by Tino Rossi here- a coincidence of family names.
The problem with the Rossi Effect opera is the roles- or the voices- soprano, alto tenor, baritone, basso which elements are the lovers and which help or make troubles to the lovers? A very surprising synopsis- if scenario is the one published at 22Passi:

"Because the Rossi Effect is the main source of energy of the E-Cat, this means that the basics of the e-Cat are now protected by the patent. The Rossi Effect is based on the exotherm reaction between lithium and hydrogen that is catalysed by nickel and  by other elements of the group 10 of the Periodic Table of elements including palladium and platinum."


The Rossi Effect

Until the inventor Andrea Rossi discovered the Rossi Effect there were basically only two categories of LENR studied:
Palladium – Deuterium(the original Cold Fusion process)
Nickel – Hydrogen

The Rossi Effect is a completely new discovery in the field of LENR technology and raises the available power density of LENR processes several orders of magnitude to at least 10 kW/kg. With Power Densities this high most conventional Energy Applications have the potential of being replaced with an ECAT energy source.

The Rossi Effect is based on a LENR process including Hydrogen and Lithium where Nickel is merely used as a catalyst and is not consumed in the process (some Nickel – Hydrogen reactions occur but the major part of the Nickel is not consumed and can be recycled). The Hydrogen – Lithium reaction is highly exothermic;
Li7 + H1 → Be8 → 2He4 + 17.3 MeV,

where the 17.3 MeV (=2.8*10-12J) is released as heat. This is equivalent to an Energy Density (Specific Energy) of 209 million MJ/kg or 58 million kWh/kg or 5 million times the Energy Density of Oil.

ECAT uses Lithium Aluminium Hydride (LiAlH4) as fuel for utilizing the Rossi Effect. The benefit of Lithium Aluminium Hydride as a Fuel Source is that it is a solid and therefore much easier to handle than ordinary Hydrogen Gas. Leonardo Corporation received a US patent for this ECAT process on the 25 Aug 2015, see ECAT patents.

When heated Lithium Aluminium Hydride decomposes in a three-steps:
3 LiAlH4 → Li3AlH6 + 2 Al + 3 H2 (R1)
2 Li3AlH6 → 6 LiH + 2 Al + 3 H2 (R2)
2 LiH + 2 Al → 2 LiAl + H2 (R3)

(R1) is usually initiated by the melting of Lithium Aluminium Hydride in the temperature range 150–170 °C, immediately followed by decomposition into solid Li3AlH6, although (R1) is known to proceed below the melting point of LiAlH4 as well. At about 200 °C, Li3AlH6 decomposes into LiH (R2) and Al which subsequently convert into LiAl above 400 °C (R3). Reaction (R1) is effectively irreversible. (R3) is reversible with an equilibrium pressure of about 0.25 bar at 500 °C. (R1) and (R2) can also occur at room temperature with suitable catalysts. When Nickel is added as a catalyst Lithium and Hydrogen will start to diffuse into the Nickel Lattice after the decomposition of the Lithium Aluminium Hydride and at high enough temperature, 600 – 1200 °C, the Rossi Effect will kick in and convert Lithium and Hydrogen into Helium  under the release of vast amounts of energy.

Especially beneficial is that gamma radiation is naturally absent in the Rossi Effect because the energy is only released as kinetic energy through thermal Helium nuclei which later thermalize the Nickel Lattice and the inner walls of the ECAT reactor core, under impact, turning kinetic energy into thermal energy. This makes the Rossi Effect ideal for utilizing nuclear sized energy in the complete absence of both radioactive materials and radiation.

a) Has this document the approval of Rossi?
b) If nickel is just an catalyst, how and why were there measured isotopic shifts in nickel and In lithium?
c) The dozen successful experiments of Rossi were made with hydrogen and 
we heard nothing almost about lithium, however it was about an enhanced excess heat effect; was this a pre-Rossi Effect or what?
d) Is this ideal fuel composition valid  for all the- at least 3 categories of E-Cats working at different temperatures?
e) Are the reactions for the low temperature generators as the E-Cats from the 1MW plant and those for the E-Cat X- similar, the same or different?
f) A multiplex question- how can we decrease a bit the new uncertainty wave?



1) MFMP Live run started at 18.30 UTC yesterday
From the LENR Forum Team:
Alan Goldwater of MFMP has just started a new glow stick experiment with Parkhomov nickle and LiAlH4 mix!
More information, live chat and live data from hugnetlab in the forum:

2) MFMP to run new Glowstick test (Update. Aug 26, fueled test to run livestream)
Still going problems with live stream

3) About the patent
L’E-Cat ha (finalmente) ottenuto il brevetto dall’US Patent Office

4) From Camilo Urbina, EGO OUT''s associate for South America
Brian Josephson
Updates on cold fusion As flying pigs have so far not yet been spotted in these parts, you won't be getting the following news from Nature itself! We are pleased to have this opportunity to keep Nature readers up to date: 1) "For the first time in two decades, the Japanese government has issued a request for proposals for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research". For details see 2) Andrea Rossi has been granted a US patent for his 'energy catalyzer', which claims to produce large amounts of energy from a nuclear reaction (however, the patent itself does not refer to this aspect, only giving details of the design). For details see Mats Lewan's book 'An Impossible Invention' (see the article cited for links to the book) goes into detail concerning the E-cat's history. Here is an extract from the article:
As far as I understand, the patent describes the so-called low temperature E-Cat that Rossi showed in semi-public demonstrations at several occasions in 2011, and which is also used in an ongoing 350-day trial of a 1 MW plant, but since it describes core parts of the technology it is probably also valid at a certain extent also for more recent E-Cat models with higher operating temperature.
Brian Josephson
later published on CMNS by Brian

5) Andrea Rossi confesses:
August 27th, 2015 at 8:40 AM

Dan C.:
The many patents I am working on related to upgradings of the Rossi Effect mean an enormous work. That’s all I can say.
The patent we got granted has been filed for in March 2012 and granted on August 2015, moreless 3 years and a half of very hard work with the Attorneys I worked with, many work hours of them and me, discussions with the Examiners ( the process has been very difficult and engaging). Three years and a half of very hard work, with enormous anxiety and hundreds of meetings with the attorneys. All the ( many) objections of the examiners had to be dealt with cum precision. My team of Attorneys has made a fantastic work.
About the celebrative issue: I don’t need a plaque: for me it is bearer of full solace to look at the ribbon of the USPTO on the cover of my patent. This view, for me, is equipollent to the view of the Monalisa of leonardo Da Vinci for a classic art amateur… It is the most important achievement of my life, because the USA have recognized my invention.
Warm Regards,

6) on Vessy's Blog:

E-Cat – The battle for the patent ends with a victory!

7) Vessela Nikolova also announces n Italian conference for Oct 3, 2015 at Terni , re LENR and other renewables:
LenrTerni Lenr e le altre rinnovabili al PalaSì Terni il 3 Ott. 2015 - See more at:

8) Cold fusion heats up: Fusion energy and LENR update


  1. Who was awarded the potassium patent or was it deemed by Rossi and his legal team to be open source? Rossi's low heat reactor (1 Megawatt version) must use a potassium based fuel. A Lithium based fuel must run in a reactor with and operating temperature of over 1000C. Is Rossi conceding the Big cat and his tiger reactor subsystem as using and open source LENR technology?

    DGT used Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as their fuel. This is the standard LENR catalyst. It has been used from the earliest times of LENR. Thermocore might have been the first to experiment with potassium. Potassium could support the a fine LENR reactor design.

    Melting point (891 °C (1,636 °F; 1,164 K)
    Boiling point - decomposes.

    A competitor of Rossi could develop a reactor that uses K2CO3 with no patent protection recourse from Rossi. I believe that Rossi is reserving the Lithium aluminum hydrate fuel as a doorway to the direct conversion of the LENR reaction into electricity via the E Cat-X . This might be why Rossi made a point that the lithium based LENR patent was the first LENR patent to be set in place by Rossi’s team.

    A way to get around the Rossi patent protection is to mix chemical compounds containing cesium, potassium and lithium together in proportions that are different from those specified by the Rossi patent.

    Even if Mills does not describe what he does in his technologies as LENR, as described by Mills in his patents, there are hundreds of chemical compound combinations that will support the LENR reaction.

    These chemicals uses as fuel are not fundamental to LENR, it is what these fuels produce that results in LENR. Those more fundamental elements are nanoparticles of the proper sizes and aggregations (aka topology) comprised of elements and/or chemical compounds.

    If you remember the story of how a long running LENR reaction melted and vaporized a hole a lab table and the reinforced concrete LENR lab floor just under the table, that vaporized floor material served as fuel of the LENR reaction in that amazing case.


  2. @Ecco

    Filing date Nov 27, 2012
    Priority date Nov 27, 2011
    Also published as US20150162104, WO2013076378A2, WO2013076378A3
    Inventors Pekka Soininen

    From this patent

    [0116] In an embodiment of the present invention styrene catalyst is utilized for enhancing nuclear fusion in a solid state system. The precursor for the styrene catalyst, hematite Fe203, having corundum crystal structure is reduced with hydrogen gas into magnetite FesO i. The precursor (iron oxide) is doped with alkali metal hydroxide comprising lithium hydroxide LiOH, sodium hydroxide NaOH, potassium hydroxide KOH, rubidium hydroxide RbOH and/or cesium hydroxide CsOH or with alkali metal oxide comprising lithium oxide Li20, sodium oxide Na20, potassium oxide K20, rubidium oxide Rb20 and/or cesium oxide Cs20. The alkali metal hydroxide is preferably KOH and the alkali metal oxide is preferably K20. Textural promoters comprising alumina Al203 and/or chromia Cr203 are added to the iron oxide. The said textural promoters are stable in process conditions in hot, highly reducing environment and they prevent the loss of lattice defects that are necessary for storing Rydberg matter and inverted Rydberg matter.

    [0123] Industrial catalysts have been optimized for specific chemical processes. For example, formation of coke (solid carbonaceous material) on the catalyst surface is avoided if the process temperature is kept in a specified temperature range. The present invention does not utilize compounds that form coke and temperatures above the normal temperature range for catalytic processes can be used in the present thermal- energy producing reactor. [0124] The probability for obtaining nuclear fusion near a single structural defect of a material is very small. Arranging a very large number of particles with surface and lattice defects to the reaction container increases the probability for nuclear fusion events per time unit within the reaction container to a noticeable and useful level. For example, if a 50 g piece of nickel is converted into 5 nm Ni nanoparticles with about 6000 atoms, about 8.55*1019 Ni nanoparticles is obtained. Each Ni nanoparticle may be in contact with a catalyst nanoparticle that promotes the formation of Rydberg atoms and clusters. Even a very small probability for obtaining nuclear fusion near a single Ni nanoparticle becomes considerable and useful when all the 8.55*1019 probabilities are added together.

  3. In one important way, Rossi's catalytic approach is more powerful than that of Pekka Soininen. Rossi uses up to 100 micron nickel particles which are sintered together from 5 micron COTS powder. The EMF power amplification factor that these various particles produce when aggregated is proportional to the SIZE SPREAD of the particles sizes used. A particle size spread between 100 microns and 1 nanometer produces a EMF power application factor of 10^15 when heat (infrared EMF) is converted to magnetic power.

    See this reference for an explanation of how this amplification process works

    Plasmonics with a twist: taming optical tornadoes on the nanoscale

    See this for more detail involving EMF conversion processes

    Extraordinary momentum and spin in evanescent waves