Tuesday, March 24, 2015



Making good decisions is a crucial skill at every level. (Peter Drucker)
You can never solve a problem on the level on which it was created.(Albert Einstein)
Today morning I have got a warning message from the past- and I am still thinking about it.
Some 23 years ago, trying to understand Cold Fusion I 

In my opinion, the cold fusion phenomena are localized at active sites (similar to catalysis), and characterized by intense surface dynamics. 
What the nature, rise and dynamism of the active sites are, is an open question. A very rapid and massive information influx from the field of science and technology of catalysis could be useful to get the answer(s).

Active sites both for chemical and LENR catalysis i.e. synergies between different levels of organization of matter, if you want to read more please make a search in EGO OUT for "synergy, synergies" are special places- where "miracles happen"
Take a look to what we know, or believe about the active sites in LENR and then compare the level of knowledge and the level of control, the approach and mode  with what is known today for active sites in chemical heterogeneous catalysis
The stimulant to raise the level scientific, technological came in the form of the following paper:

Role of Hot Electrons and Metal–Oxide Interfaces in Surface Chemistry and Catalytic Reactions
Jeong Young Park , L. Robert Baker, and Gabor A. Somorjai 
Chem. Rev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/cr400311p
Publication Date (Web): March 20, 2015

I still have not the complete paper; please have the patience to examine its 
table of contents:
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Energy Dissipation at Surfaces
    • 2.1. Energy Dissipation Mechanism
      • 2.1.1. Phonons or Quantized Lattice Vibration
      • 2.1.2. Excitation of Electron–Hole Pairs
    • 2.2. Born–Oppenheimer Approximation and Its Breakdown in Fast Atomic Processes
    • 2.3. Concept of Hot Electrons Generated on a Metallic Surface
  • 3. Detection of Hot Electrons
    • 3.1. Hot Electron Generation by Photons
    • 3.2. Hot Electrons Generation by Transfer of Energetic Molecules
    • 3.3. Hot Electron Generation by Electron Beams
      • 3.3.1. Hot Electrons Generated by a Metal–Insulator–Metal Junctions and Ballistic Emission Electron Microscopy
      • 3.3.2. Hot Electron Detection Using a Metal–Semiconductor Schottky Diode
  • 4. Electron Transfer at Interfaces
    • 4.1. Electronic Structure and Catalysis at the Metal–Support Interface
    • 4.2. Chemisorption on Supported Metal Clusters
    • 4.3. Effect of Oxide Support on Metal Cluster Morphology
    • 4.4. Active Sites at the Metal–Support Interface
    • 4.5. Molecular Origins of Metal–Support Interactions
    • 4.6. Role of Dopants of Oxides as an Electronically Active Support for Pt
  • 5. Catalytic Nanodiodes: Probing Hot Electrons from Exothermic Catalytic Reactions
    • 5.1. Concept of Catalytic Nanodiodes
    • 5.2. Fabrication and Characterization of Metal–Semiconductor Nanodiodes
    • 5.3. Chemicurrent and Catalytic Activity of M/TiO2 Nanodiodes (M = Pt, Rh, and Pd)
    • 5.4. Chemicurrent and Catalytic Activity of Nanodiodes under Hydrogen Oxidation and NO/CO Catalytic Reactions
    • 5.5. Nanoparticle–Catalytic Nanodiode Hybrid System
    • 5.6. Differentiating Hot Electron Current from Thermal Background
    • 5.7. Theoretical Considerations for Electronic Excitation and Chemicurrent
  • 6. Influence of Hot Electrons on Surface Chemistry and Heterogeneous Catalysis
    • 6.1. Influence of Hot Electrons on Atomic and Molecular Processes
    • 6.2. Electronic Coupling of Surface Electrons to Adsorbate Vibration
    • 6.3. Solid-State Device for Electronic Control of Surface Chemistry
    • 6.4. Hot Electron Effect on Metal–Oxide Hybrid Nanocatalysts
  • 7. Future Perspectives and Concluding Remarks
    • 7.1. Hot Electron-Based Solar Energy Conversion
    • 7.2. Acid–Base Catalysis
    • 7.3. Beyond Catalytic Nanodiodes
    • 7.4. Conclusion
Do not think about the concepts, just about the level of knowledge!
Do you feel the smell of nano-plasmonics about which my friends Yiannis and Axil have written many times?
I think we will need something similar for our LENR active sites which are now seen like cavemen floating there between the walls avoiding somehow the contact with the walls? And yet palladium caves are good only for deuterium cavemen and nickel is good only for light hydrogen cavemen
who knows why, 1 cave = 1 cave as Bertolt Brecht would say in Man Equals Man.
I think the real active sites are indeed on the surfaces of the metals but are very sophisticated high scientific level nano-structures- not rigid but dynamic, at high temperatures this dynamism can take new forms. LENR takes place ON the material.
My idea (confession) that I don't like LENR based on cracks because it is an sacrificial process was judged as irrational, actually it is more fundamental- who want a non-technologizable LENR.
Energy release is some thousand times more intense for Hot Cats than for the PdD wet cell reported per unit of weight of metal, can you pragmatically thinking, attribute this to cracks? 

I also was accused to be anti-scientific because I want useful science- more than beautiful.
Look please again to the Chem. Rev. paper and notice that useful science is also beautiful- if the intellectual level is high. We have many high level LENR papers- having some troubles with realism; we have to raise the level of the basic explanation- first.
By the way, our colleague Jean Paul Biberian writes about the main author, Gabor Somorjai im his instructive and enchanting book. I have read it in French now you can get it in English too.


OMG! Ulrika Björksten (SR) and Marcus Hansson (freelancer) are rewarded for their Stupidity…


Tiny treasure: The future of nano-gold ANIMATION!


  1. Regarding:
    “Excitation of Electron–Hole Pairs”

    Lets put some numbers on this concept to make it more understandable.

    There is evidence that heat transfers its energy to photons in LENR. The wavelength of Far infrared EMF is about 1 millimeter. We know that the Rossi reactor produces a maximum EMF in the soft X-ray range or an EMF photon in the 10 nanometer range.

    In the Ni/H reactor there is a process that increases the energy of the photon from 1 mm to 10 nm.

    Since 1 millimeter = 1 000 000 nanometers, there is an energy amplification factor of 100,000.

    There is a nano structure that produces this amplification of EMF power by 100,000. We know that when a photon is confined in a nano sized box, that photon will adjust its wavelength to resonate inside that box. The nano box that produces soft x-rays is sized to resonate in the circumference of 10 nanometers. So the nano box has a radius of about 3 nanometers.

    The heat energy is converted to dipole vibration by the free electrons on the surface of the metal.

    The spin of a dipole electron/photon hybrid or SPP is 2. But the nano box also amplifies this spin by a factor of 100,000 to conserve angular momentum. This is like an ice-skater who pulls in her arms to rotate in a smaller circumference. The tuck in of her arms increases her rotation rate.

    For every SPP that goes into the nano-box, its spin is amplified to produce 200,000 Bohr magnetons. That is like having 400,000 magnetized iron atoms for every SPP that the heat photon produces.

    When the nano box is filled to the maximum with SPPs, it will explode into a bosenova. At this point, the energy stored in the nano-box is returned to the system. This return happens when the electrons and x-ray photons decouple to produce independent electrons and x-rays. These soft x-rays are seen in many LENR systems such as cavitation, Mills catalysts as black light, and Ni/H reactors.

    Because the SPP is a boson, coulomb repulsion does not limit the number of SPPs that can be packed into a nano-box. At this juncture, it is unknown how many SPPs can be packed into a nano-box before it explodes. But the number of SPPs could be very large. You can now see how a very powerful magnetic beam can be generated from heat energy.

    The nano-box is a magnetic vortex or soliton because all the SPPs are coherent and form a Bose Einstein condensate. Like a tornado, the soliton focuses the magnetic field produced by the SPPs into a tight spot that shines on the matter near the soliton. This strong magnetic field does unusual things to the matter and space that falls within the influence of this magnetic beam. This concentration of heat energy into a focused magnetic field I believe underpins the nature of LENR.

  2. Axil,
    Thanks again for offering new ideas. Am working hard just wrap my mind around the standard model and that itself was inspired by many of your earlier posts. My current book (60%) of the 6 just read, is about the life and work of Feynman. Have also obtained his lecture series. Your comments keep extending the scope of learning needed to get a 'foot in the door' in understanding LENR. Thanks again. (In particular I have been intrigued by the many claims of massive magnetic bursts in LENR devices. Even Papp appeared to have had this effect which he harnessed to induce sparking cycles). This post of yours suggests a way this may occur. Again, so intriguing. Thanks. DSM.

  3. dthe nano-box, a natural magnetron amplifier? asn interesting concept.