Friday, August 15, 2014

Fundamental Causation Mechanisms of LENR.


One of the many miracles that we see in LENR is the stabilization of its nuclear waste products. This miracle is real as witnessed by a number of patents having been awarded that have this LENR base isotope stabilization effect as the centerpiece of its operating mechanism. [1,2]

Furthermore, a newly recognized phenomenon involving a violation in the common rule held by science that nuclear decay rates are fixed and constant has been shown to be violated by something emanating from the sun. The results of many experiments showing this phenomenon has rocked the physics community. This fixed rate of radioactive decay has been shown to vary widely under some strange force that arises out of the core of the sun. [3,4]

There is something that is causing LENR and at the same time stabilizing its reaction waste products. One pleasing and elegant idea is that both phenomena are caused by the same thing. This article is an exploration of the possibility that just a single factor is the fundamental mechanism of LENR causation. We also attempt to show how this one critical factor can produce both LENR characteristics with one characteristic emerging from the other.

Finally, this article will tie in the explanation of how magnetism is produced as an end product of the Ni/H nanoplasmonic process and how magnetism is the cause of accelerated nuclear decay rates. This article will explain how magnetism does this in as simple a way as possible.

The acceleration of nuclear decay rates in LENR.

A well recognize feature of LENR is the rapid or sometimes almost instantaneous stabilization of radioactive elements. This is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing radiation and/or subatomic particles. To start a simple explanation of what the stabilization of radioactive elements is all about, the nucleus of a radioactive element is excited in a state of energy retention that is not as low as it could possibly be.

Radioactive decay is a random process at the level of single atoms, in that, according to quantum theory, it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will decay. However, the chance that a given atom will decay is amazingly constant over time.[5,6]

Einstein hated the uncertainty of quantum mechanics. He famously dismissed this uncertain universe when he said "God does not play dice with the universe". Unfortunately for Einstein, however, he was proved wrong, when 50 years later experimental evidence finally caught up with theoretical physics, and quantum theory was shown to be correct.

The binding energy that keeps all the parts of the nucleus together and contained inside the nucleus is an uncertain thing. It varies constantly at the whim of chance. The cosmic croupier spins his wheel of chance and the ball falls into one of many quantum numbered pockets. Then, inside the nucleus, a random quantum of energy pops into existence from the fabric of space for a short time, this is called virtual energy. [7] In this way, the energy that keeps the nucleus together goes up and down at the whim of quantum mechanics. This nuclear binding energy is comprised of two parts: a real energy that never changes and a virtual energy that always changes. It is this virtual energy that can vary widely and is not constrained by the laws of energy and momentum.

When constrained inside the nucleus and when this nuclear energy is composed of the sum of these two parts get strong enough, it spills over the top of the coulomb barrier and forms a real particle outside the nucleus. This is called quantum mechanical tunneling. [8] The virtual part of this spillover energy only lasts for the briefest of instants and immediately goes back to the vacuum from whence it came and only the real part remains to congeal into the newly formed particle that has tunneled through the barrier. This process is called radioactive decay (AKA tunneling through the coulomb barrier) and these congealed quanta of energy are called real particles and/or ionizing radiation.

After this nuclear relaxation process has completed, if the energy level inside the nucleus has been lowered enough so that it can never again surmount the coulomb barrier no matter how much virtual energy may appear, the element is said to be stable.

In regards to LENR, we can draw an amazing and informative conclusion from this behavior of accelerated nuclear decay.

The fact that no radioactive isotopes are found in the ash of the cold fusion reaction is unequivocal proof that LENR is caused by the fantastically accelerated rate at which the cosmic croupier of chance spins his wheel in the LENR casino.

 I have described in the previous article here at Ego Out that an anapole beam of magnetic force is projected into the atoms within the nuclear active environment (NAE). So it must be this beam of magnetism that accelerates virtual energy formation.

How magnetism increases radioactive decay is not yet determined, but I have a few ideas on this subject.

Simply stated, magnetism is just another form of charge as a reflection of the need to adjust the effects of charge in moving frames of reference. A magnetic field is a relativistic manifestation of charge as seen moving in the relativistic reference frame. [9, 10,11]  A large ensemble of moving charge carriers will produce a strong magnetic field that in turn will produce a large flux of virtual photons in the frame of reference in which the charges are moving. A magnetic field will be produced by the movement of electrons in the relativistic frame of reference where the electrons are moving in a circle or more rightly a vortex. This magnetic field which is really a stream of charge carrying virtual photons will reach into a stationary frame of reference and impart into that stationary frame (our frame) a large flux of virtual photons generated in the frame of the relativistic moving charges.

To keep everything in balance the rate of virtual photon production will be the same in both the relativistic frame and the stationary frame to carry the effects of charge transmission and reception between the two frames of reference. LENR is a process where action at a distance is manifest, and that mode of causality is the result of the nature of magnetism where virtual photons project into a distant frame of reference.

To give you a sneak preview of what is to come as an example, the Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) soliton is the frame in which a large number of charges are moving at relativistic speed. The quark zone inside the proton is where the three quarks orbit. This zone is the stationary frame of reference that is affected by the magnetic field produced by the soliton. The magnetic field will generate a large flux of virtual photons in the stationary frame of the quark zone inside the proton. It is the large infusion of virtual photons that catalyze the production of a virtual quark which is the beginning of the formation of a meson.

A SPP soliton is a magnetic mechanism that concentrates and focuses charge to a huge degree. One of the energy amplification mechanisms found in LENR is energy beaming. Like a gamma ray burst [12] where an intense pulse of energy can be seen from one far corner of the universe clear across to the other side of the cosmos, a soliton can focus charge into a tight atomic sized beam that is not subject to the inverse square law that usually dilutes charge interaction with distance as usually happens in the spherical distribution described by the inverse square law.

All of the virtual photons that carry charge is focused in a tight beam which is very tight indeed; in fact so tight and concentrated that charge is constrained to interact within a very small angstrom sized volume of space/time.[14]

The magnetic field that projects into the nucleus not only accelerates virtual particle creation; it also adds some real energy to those virtual particles.[17]

To a large degree, in LENR the projection of charge through magnetism is so intense, that it literally removes chance from the virtual particle game and makes it a near certainty that a virtual particle with a huge amount of energy will be created inside the nucleus.  When the energy level is so high in the nucleus during this LENR moment, the virtual particle will carry away the extra energy that was exciting the radioactive nucleus and then the energy in the nucleus is stabilized at its lowest nuclear energy level.  By removing excitation energy, the coulomb barrier is now high enough to always hold this reduced binding energy. Now when the virtual particle gives its energy back to the vacuum from which it came the binding energy contained in the newly relaxed nucleus is completely contained by the confinement power of the coulomb barrier.

Here is an analog from the real world to help explain this principle.

If we take a glass of water filled to the brim on a leisurely car trip over a bumpy road, when you eventually hit some large bumps in the road the water will splash over the brim until water reaches a maximum level where the water does not splash out of the glass anymore. The time that it takes to remove this excess water is random but related to the pattern of the bumps encountered when the car passes over the bumpy road.

Now suppose we press the gas pedal to the floor and the speed of the car increases to breakneck levels hitting those large bumps more often and harder, reaching the no spill level of the glass in short order as the water flies out of the glass at a great rate. When we resume our leisurely pace, no water will ever spill out of the glass again no matter how bumpy the road gets. We hit all the worse bumps in our race and we hit those bumps very hard. The water level in the glass is now forever stable.

This LENR mechanism of accelerated tunneling is central to the way LENR can produce energy through extreme ranges of power output from megawatts to milliwatts.

One of the toughest LENR riddles to answer is as follows: ‘how can the meltdown of a Ni/H reactor be caused by the same process that can produce one watt of output in the Dennis Cravens' golden ball.’[16]

The mechanism that provides this vast range of power generation intensity is tunneling.[14]

It is clear that the application of a magnetic field can increase the rate of radioactive decay in isotopes by many orders of magnitude. A radioactive isotope that might normally take a few hundred years to cut its radioactive rate in half might take a microsecond during a LENR moment.

Meson Production

This same quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism can work inside of protons and neutrons to increase the production of virtual mesons.

To set the stage for this next phase of our description, the three quarks inside a proton live inside a very small volume. This quantum confinement box is the volume that the quarks rattle around in inside the proton. This minuscule volume defines the constraints imposed on the uncertainty of this trio of quarks by limiting the range in their position to a high degree. Through the uncertainty principle, this means that the variable maximum virtual energy that this fixed position produces is very large.

The virtual quark inside the proton is jumping around inside its tunneling confinement box with great vigor.

But the energy level to produce a meson is also very high at 140 MeV. So without some help from the vacuum,  a meson is not produced by virtual particle production.

But when a magnetic field is applied to the proton, it adds some kinetic energy to the quark dance and a whole lot of virtual photons. This pushes up the floor of the tunneling confinement box. The degree in which this floor is raised is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field applied to the proton. The magnetic field also increases the rate of virtual particle production proportional to the strength of the magnetic field.

In a very strong magnetic field, a new quark is formed out of the added magnetic and virtual energy and that quark jumps out of the proton. An anti-quark is formed to mate up with the expelled quark since no quark can exist on its own.  This pair of new quarks now forms a virtual meson that has tunneled out of the proton. These virtual mesons will jump out of the proton confinement box very often because LENR has raised the floor of the box very high and the associated rate of virtual meson production is then very high. Their energy levels are a lot greater because the virtual energy has been supplemented by magnetic energy. In this way, very many mesons are produced that will eventually decay to muons; [15, 20] and muons catalyzed hydrogen fusion. [18]

The protons derived from ionized hydrogen that floats into the magnetically irradiated NAE will produce muons via tunneling and that muon attracts another proton through coulomb attraction. This proton pair that is formed from muon attraction will fuse together after they are brought very close together by the muon. This is called proton proton (PP) fusion. These pairs of protons are seen in Piantelli’s experiments.

The theory of muon catalyzed fusion (MCF) is similar in concept to the negative ion mechanism that Piantelli proposes. But MCF will result in PP fusion. [19] The end reaction products of PP fusion are primarily light elements like boron and beryllium. These light elements have been seen in the ash assay results from DGT.

PP fusion will also explain why Piantelli sees proton pairs in his reaction cycle combining with nickel to produce copper.

Another pleasing idea is that there is a great energy gain mechanism at play associated with muon catalyzed fusion. An investment of just a few MeV of magnetic energy can produce an average fusion yield of 150 reactions per emitted muon.

From one LENR system to another, these muons are composed of a varied mixture of virtual energy and real energy based on the strength of the magnetic beam that produced them. A muon that contains mostly virtual energy doesn’t last long (4.88x10^^−24 s). In this brief lifetime that muon will only cause a small number of fusions. A muon which contains mostly real magnetic energy lasts a very long time (2.6×10^^−8 s). In this very long lifetime that muon will produce large numbers of fusions.

Particles are all the same. Some last a very long time and some endure but for an instant. Lifespan is relative in the world of particles.

At this juncture, it is not clear how much magnetic energy is required to keep a gainful fusion reaction going. The number of muon catalyzed fusion reactions that occur is proportional to the decay time of the muon. A muon that has a long delay time because of the amount of its high kinetic energy content may catalyze many hundreds of fusion reactions on the average before it decays.

In the case of the Dennis Cravens' golden ball together with the other milliwatt level systems when the magnetic field is very weak, very few mesons tunnel out of the proton confinement box and the muon catalyzed fusion level is very small. But fusion still goes on because that small amount of extra magnetic energy is just enough to produce some small amounts of fusion.

Finally, one of the big challenges of any LENR nuclear reaction theory is conformance with a boatload of particle physics conservation laws. The Meson theory has been under development for just under a century now and particle physics has developed an associated experimentally verified system that conforms strictly to all of these many conservation laws.

This meson theory can be verified by the detection of a large increase in the numbers of muon neutrinos exiting an active Ni/H reactor.

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2 – Ken  Shoulders' basic process is been shown as a solution the remediation of nuclear waste. By bombarding radioactive nuclei with charge clusters, the induced nuclear reactions (primarily fissioning of the heavier elements) result in a reduction of harmful radiation. Laboratory experiments show a dramatic transmutation of radioactive thorium into smaller-mass elements with the marked reduction of the naturally radioactive thorium.
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15 - The P and A mesons in strong abelian magnetic field in SU(2) lattice gauge theory.

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  1. A very interesting article and an insightful POV. Thanks !.

    Doug M

    1. I also think so: slowly people will understand that "LENR is an opera, not a song"


  2. Just wanted to add this link to the Dennis Cravens Golden Ball experiment as the original link in the published article got truncated.

    Doug M

  3. thanks, dear Doug I hope now it works


  4. you say that The fact that no radioactive isotopes are found in the ash of the cold fusion is proof of your claim, but tritium is a radioactive isotope and has been observed in many lenr experiments.

    1. Nanoplasmonic experiments can be performed that evoke nuclear reactions through the use of laser irradiation of metallic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles amplify, concentrate, focus and convert the photons from the lasers into magnetic energy as described in my previous posts, for example see this experiment:

      Laser-induced synthesis and decay of Tritium under exposure of solid targets in heavy water.

      In this nanoplasmonic experiment, tritium can be increased or reduced or both simultaneously based on the parameters manipulated by the experimenter.

      The metal used is sensitive to the degree of reflection of the laser light. More reflection produces more reactivity.

      The duration of the laser pulse also is a factor. I believe that tritium production in Deuterium systems is a matter of timing related to an incomplete reaction cycle.

      In a system that flickers magnetically, and/or does not sustain a state of Bose Einstein condensation will produce nuclear products. A good example of this is the cavitation system that Mark LeClair has developed.

      The experimenter in the referenced paper remarks as follows:

      “The efficiency of nuclear processes occurring during the course of heavy water electrolysis can depend on the character of roughness of the electrode surfaces on a nanometer scale, the “spikiness” parameters [17, 18] in particular. Indeed, it is precisely in the regions of the sharpest surface relief alterations that high electric field strengths making for the acceleration of electrons and high mechanical stresses depressing the activation barriers for electrochemical processes can both get realized. This parameter is out of control in most experiments with electrolysis of heavy water. On the contrary, laser ablation of metallic targets by sub-nanosecond laser pulses leads to formation of self-organized nanostructures (NS) on the target. The average size and density of NS depends on laser fluence on the target and target material. Typical view of such NS on Ti and Au target ablated in water with 10 ps laser pulses are presented in Fig. 1.”

      The paper is reflecting the rationale I gave for the formation of static and dynamic nuclear active environments.

      Clearly, uncontrolled creation of NAE is consistent with what happens in many uncontrolled LENR systems using electrolysis. By the way to avoid chance in NAE formation, in recent Misuno reactor experiments, Mizuno preconditions his electrodes to form metal spikes to enable the static NAE in the nanoplasmonic LENR process.

      The authors of this paper has their own theory of what is going on, my agreement will the author will vary on certain issues.

      At the end of the day, uncontrolled random effects can increase and/or decrease the creation and/or destruction of tritium. Tritium is not an indicator of a hot fusion like reaction but instead shows that a marginal system is flickering in terms of sustaining a nanoplasmonic LENR reaction.

  5. i personally believe that both lenr and nuclear decay rate variations are cause by neutrino absorption. in lenr, we use condensed matter with non-localization of pseudo-particles (similair to bec in superconductors) to greatly increase neutrino absorption cross-section.

    1. On Dec 13, 2006, the sun itself provided a crucial clue, when a solar flare sent a stream of particles and radiation toward Earth. Purdue nuclear engineer Jere Jenkins, while measuring the decay rate of manganese-54, a short-lived isotope used in medical diagnostics, noticed that the rate dropped slightly during the flare, a decrease that started about a day and a half before the flare.

      Read more at:

      The unknown force from the sun must not only increase nuclear decay rates but reduce them. This is an important clue to the nature of this unknown factor. Radioactive decay rates must be embedded in an environment that defines its nature. That environment can be increased or decreased based on solar activity and in fact is defined by solar activity.

      The sun must provide an average background flux that directly affects the rates of decay. Various parts of the sun contribute to this background. This background comes from the core of the sun, but it can also be effected by localized regions on the sun’s surface.

      It must be magnetism. Here is why…

      The high magnetic fields in the sunspot-producing active regions also give rise to explosions known as solar flares. When the twisted field lines cross and reconnect, energy explodes outward with a force exceeding that of millions of hydrogen bombs.

      Temperatures in the outer layer of the sun, known as the corona, typically fall around a few million kelvins. As solar flares push through the corona, they heat its gas to anywhere from 10 to 20 million K, occasionally reaching as high as a hundred million.

      Because solar flares form in the same active regions as sunspots, they are connected to these smaller, less violent events. Flares tend to follow the same 11-year cycle. At the peak of the cycle, several flares may occur each day, with an average lifetime of only 10 minutes.

      Solar flares vary in size and power. The largest, X-class flares have the most significant effect on Earth. They can cause long-lasting radiation storms in the upper atmosphere, and trigger radio blackouts. Medium-size M-class flares can cause brief radio blackouts in the Polar Regions and the occasional minor radiation storms. C-class flares have few noticeable consequences.

      Absorbing X-rays affects the atmosphere. The increase in heat and energy result in an expansion of the Earth's ionosphere. Man-made radio waves travel through this portion of the upper atmosphere, so radio communications can be disturbed by its sudden unpredictable growth. Similarly, satellites previously circling through vacuum-free space can find themselves caught in the expanded sphere. The resulting friction slows down their orbit, and can bring them back to Earth sooner than intended.

      Despite their size and high energy, solar flares are almost never visible optically. The bright emission of the surrounding photosphere, where the sun's light originates, tends to overshadow even these explosive phenomena. Radio and optical emissions can be observed on Earth.

      I am saying in so many words is that solar flares are very powerful.

      Clearly, a tremendous amount of magnetic energy is converted in an instant to all the aforementioned energetic phenomena at the expense of the magnetic output of the sun. The sun stores vast amounts of energy in its magnetic fields. A sudden release and conversion of that energy will reduce that magnetic energy storehouse and consequentially reduce the magnetic background around earth that defines the rate of radioactive decay.

      As the article indicates, there are also indicators of variable radioactive decay rates according to the season on Earth that they are measure, summer or winter(and that means, hemispherical differences, since winter in the northern hemisphere is summer in the south. The decay rate was ever so slightly faster in winter than in summer). It is the same sun as source of the mystery factor. Neutrinos should not be effected by the seasons of the year,

    2. It's not neutrinos, it's magnetism. ... -Constancy


      "Scientists at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology and Purdue University have ruled out neutrino flux as a cause of previously observed fluctuations in nuclear decay rates. From the article: 'Researchers ... tested this by comparing radioactive gold-198 in two shapes, spheres and thin foils, with the same mass and activity. Gold-198 releases neutrinos as it decays. The team reasoned that if neutrinos are affecting the decay rate, the atoms in the spheres should decay more slowly than the atoms in the foil because the neutrinos emitted by the atoms in the spheres would have a greater chance of interacting with their neighboring atoms. The maximum neutrino flux in the sample in their experiments was several times greater than the flux of neutrinos from the sun. The researchers followed the gamma-ray emission rate of each source for several weeks and found no difference between the decay rate of the spheres and the corresponding foils.' The paper can be found here on arXiv. Slashdot has previously covered the original announcement and followed up with the skepticism of other scientists."

      The paper can be found here on arXiv

  6. You are a false, DGT is a bluff, Hyperion doesn't work at all.

    1. Who is "a false"? The opposite of what you say is true.

  7. Liar and supporter of DGT bluff is better.