Sunday, July 19, 2015


 Dear Friends...
It is Sunday mid Summer- no chances to get many LENR news or publications today, but you never know. My Editorial of yesterday has got exactly the expected feedback
and perhaps an unchanged number of LENR-ists think that the active sites are static and simple, cracks of small dimensions.
I was not the first to tell that Cold Fusion is a form of catalysis, surely in Ben Filimonov's list of early Russian CF papers you can discover who has priority. But do not forget priority is a non- simple issue, just read OXYGEN by Djerassi and Hoffmann. But I have insisted. Les Case has worked with catalysts and Andrea Rossi
calls his device energy catalyzer

With this issue of my blog I started an action- our active sites can learn from the Science-Art of active sites as used successfully in processes of heterogeneous catalysis in the chemical industry
I take one fact for sure- our active sites cannot be simpler and more easier to understand than the chemical active sites! But both are mobile entities.
1) Role of Hot Electrons and Metal–Oxide Interfaces in Surface Chemistry and Catalytic ReactionsJeong Young Park , L. Robert Baker, and Gabor A. Somorjai
Chem. Rev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/cr400311p
Publication Date (Web): March 20, 2015

Very soon it was published the following slide share by Lew Larsen. Have you read it with empathy?

2) Lattice Energy LLC - Surprising Similarities between LENR Active Sites and Enzymatic Catalysis - March 20 2015

Today I have made a very fast and non-systematic pre-search for significant papers about the chemical active sites. All papers from 2015.
3) Heterogeneous Catalysis
1. Prof. Dr. Robert Schlögl
A heterogeneous catalyst is a functional material that continually creates active sites with its reactants under reaction conditions. These sites change the rates of chemical reactions of the reactants localized on them without changing the thermodynamic equilibrium between the materials.

4) Understanding nano effects in catalysis

Fan Yang et al
Catalysis, as a key and enabling technology, plays an increasingly important role in fields ranging from energy, environment and agriculture to health care. Rational design and synthesis of highly efficient catalysts has become the ultimate goal of catalysis research. Thanks to the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, and in particular a theoretical understanding of the tuning of electronic structure in nanoscale systems, this element of design is becoming possible via precise control of nanoparticles’ composition, morphology, structure and electronic states. At the same time, it is important to develop tools for in-situ characterization of nanocatalysts under realistic reaction conditions, and for monitoring the dynamics of catalysis with high spatial, temporal and energy resolution. In this review, we discuss confinement effects in nanocatalysis, a concept that our group has put forward and developed over several years. Taking the confined catalytic systems of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metal-confined nano-oxides, and two-dimensional (2D) layered nano-catalysts as examples, we summarize and analyze the fundamental concepts, the research methods and some of the key scientific issues involved in nanocatalysis. Moreover, we present a perspective on the challenges and opportunities in future research on nanocatalysis from the aspects of: 1) controlled synthesis of nano-catalysts and rational design of catalytically active centers; 2) in-situ characterization of nanocatalysts and dynamics of catalytic processes; 3) computational chemistry with a complexity approximating that of experiments; and 4) scale-up and commercialization of nanocatalysts.

5) Dynamic formation of single-atom catalytic active sites on ​ceria-supported ​gold nanoparticles
Yang-Gang Wang et al.
Catalysis by ​gold supported on reducible oxides has been extensively studied, yet issues such as the nature of the catalytic site and the role of the reducible support remain fiercely debated topics. Here we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of an unprecedented dynamic single-atom catalytic mechanism for the oxidation of ​carbon monoxide by ​ceria-supported ​gold clusters. The reported dynamic single-atom catalytic mechanism results from the ability of the gold cation to strongly couple with the redox properties of the ​ceria in a synergistic manner, thereby lowering the energy of redox reactions. The gold cation can break away from the ​gold nanoparticle to catalyse ​carbon monoxide oxidation, adjacent to the metal/oxide interface and subsequently reintegrate back into the nanoparticle after the reaction is completed. Our study highlights the importance of the dynamic creation of active sites under reaction conditions and their essential role in catalysis.

6) New Design Paradigm for Heterogeneous Catalysts
Aleksandra Vojvodic and  Jens K. Nørskov*
Both scientific discovery and technological development are at some point faced with the question of how to progress from a trial-and-error approach to a highly controlled design process. In heterogeneous catalysis, the search for the optimal active site of a catalyst for a given chemical reaction has been the central objective of research for almost a century. In 1925, Taylor put forward the idea that on a solid catalyst “there will be all extremes between the case in which all the atoms in the surface are active and that in which relatively few are so active”.1 Ever since the formulation of the Taylor concept of active sites, the quest for observing, identifying, modifying, and designing active sites of heterogeneous catalysts has been on.

7) Atomically-thin two-dimensional sheets for understanding active sites in catalysis
Yongfu Sun, Shan Gao, Fengcai Leia and Yi Xie!div

Catalysis can speed up chemical reactions and it usually occurs on the low coordinated steps, edges, terraces, kinks and corner atoms that are often called “active sites”. However, the atomic level interplay between active sites and catalytic activity is still an open question, owing to the large difference between idealized models and real catalysts. This stimulates us to pursue a suitable material model for studying the active sites–catalytic activity relationship, in which the atomically-thin two-dimensional sheets could serve as an ideal model, owing to their relatively simple type of active site and the ultrahigh fraction of active sites that are comparable to the overall atoms. In this tutorial review, we focus on the recent progress in disclosing the factors that affect the activity of reactive sites, including characterization of atomic coordination number, structural defects and disorder in ultrathin two-dimensional sheets by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, positron annihilation spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Also, we overview their applications in CO catalytic oxidation, photocatalytic water splitting, electrocatalytic oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions, and hence highlight the atomic level interplay among coordination number, structural defects/disorder, active sites and catalytic activity in the two-dimensional sheets with atomic thickness. Finally, we also present the major challenges and opportunities regarding the role of active sites in catalysis. We believe that this review provides critical insights for understanding the catalysis and hence helps to develop new catalysts with high catalytic activity
8) The Frontiers of Catalysis Science and Future Challenges
Hans-Joachim Freund, Gabor A. Somorjai (Dec 25, 2014)

9) BOOK 

Heterogeneous Catalysis at Nanoscale for Energy Applications
By Franklin (Feng) Tao, William F. Schneider, Prashant V. Kamat 


  1. The first and most prominent person who backed catalysis as a major feature in cold fusion was Prof. Michel Boudart of Stanford. He was a member of the DOE first review board on cold fusion and became a staunch though behind the scenes supporter of cold fusion research. Boudart was unquestionably the most brilliant and inventive catalysis scientist in the world for decades. His special interest in catalysis was the behaviour of hydrogen in its spillover state. This we now know has everything to do with singlet hydrogen in tiny domains dancing to Quantum as opposed to Newtonian music.

  2. LENR being a catalytic reaction requires the formation of a rotating EMF wave form more often a vortex of surface plasmon polaritons(SPP) to develop under the influence of topological discontinuities in condensed matter. The vortex is formed by the difference in the rate of flow around the topological defect. This rotating EMF waive form is produced by the application of a variety of externally applied energy forms including light, heat, electricity, and/or pressure.

    Any rotating EMF waveform will produce a dark mode soliton(an EMF black hole) that projects a super-radiant EMF beam axially from its center and normal to its plane of rotation. This beam produces a state of Quantum Mechanical(QM) entanglement between the soliton and the chemical molecule(S) next the soliton upon which the EMF beam irradiates. Because of QM entanglement, these molecules act as if they were physically located inside the soliton even though they still are physically positioned outside the soliton.

    There is a negative vacuum enegy condition that exists inside the soliton. This condition produces a acceleration of the flow of time inside the soliton in which the chemical reactions occur at an accelerated rate to the entangled chemical compounds.

    LENR is just a matter of the degree of power in catalytic activity as opposed to a difference in mechanism. LENR is just an more powerful form of catalytic process where the nuclei of the compounds coalesce physically in a fusion process under the power of entanglement. Under the influence of the entanglement produced by the EMF black hole, the same time acceleration occurs to stabilize the fusion product of the nuclear reaction. In LENR, the very powerful SPP soliton produces both a state of greatly amplified positive vacuum energy and a corresponding and balancing state of negative vacuum energy inside the soliton that results in a huge time acceleration factor that is so pronounced that the extremely rapid flow of time in the zone of negative vacuum energy within the soliton completely removes radioactivity from the products of the fusion reaction.

    A way to verify this concept is to produce a catalytic based chemical reaction with a radioactive isotope as a mechanism to measure time. If this acceleration in time mechanism holds true, the resulting compound will also show a reduction in the half life of the radioactive element from which the catalytic compound was formed.

    Water comprised of tritium and oxygen when catalytically split and recombined a number of times will show a reduction in the radioactivity produced by the tritium due to the time acceleration produced by the catalytic process.

  3. Regarding: the ER = EPR conjecture.

    Wormholes Untangle a Black Hole Paradox

    The latest theory in Black Hole Physics can inform how the LENR reaction works through quantum mechanics and general relativity.

    Black Holes are entanglement machines. They entangle any matter that is around them because they break apart virtual particle pairs into complimentary particles. One partner of the virtual particle pair goes inside the black hole and the remaining complimentary particle exits the boundary of the back hole to the far field. In this way, all of space time is connected to the black hole by Hawking radiation. The two parts of the virtual particle pair are connected to each other by a worm hole in space time. Anything that becomes entangled by the virtual particles outside of the Black hole becomes entangled to the Black hole,

    If the SPP soliton is an EMF black hole, then the ER = EPR conjecture is also true for the SPP soliton, since the SPP soliton is an EMF black hole. Any matter that is exposed to the Hawking radiation becomes entangled with the SPP soliton. That matter will be connected to the insides of the SPP soliton via wormholes that allow the inside of the SPP and the matter just outside it to share energy and their quantum properties. This wormhole based entanglement produces the LENR reactions that we see. These include energy termalization of high energy nuclear events, stabilization of nuclear based radioactive by-products and large numbers of nuclear reactions (cluster fusion) that occurs simultaneously as a single reaction with all the matter enclosed within the Hawking radiation field of the SPP soliton participating in a unitary fusion event.

    All the SPP solitons are also connected to each other through worm holes in space time. This allows each SPP to share energy and their quantum characteristics with each other to form a Bose condensate.