Thursday, January 29, 2015



 In recent posts on the WEB, I have made some recommendations to the reactor builder in which I identify various “secret sauce” candidates that might be LENR active in various reactor heat ranges. This post explains the theory behind those recommendations.
For example, my recommendation for potassium as appropriate for a LENR reactor in the intermediate operating temperature heat range such as the E-Cat  is based on the following thinking. First as background, the alkali metals are the chemical elements found in Group 1 of the periodic table. The alkali metals include:  Hydrogen (H),Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (RB), Cesium (Cs), and Francium (Fr).
Next, the "secret sauce" mechanism of Rossi fame, is based on the production of nano particles from a condensing plasma.
The alkali metals including hydrogen will produce Rydberg matter. This mechanism is one that produces nano particles.
In addition, other theoretical possibilities include the elements like sodium, beryllium, magnesium and calcium as ones that will also produce Rydberg matter as nano particles. I would stay away from beryllium because it is very dangerous when ingested.
For example, Magnesium and Calcium were detected in the fuel load in the TPR2 test.
In short, the secret sauce is any element or chemical compound that will produce nano particles when heated.
The reason why this nano particle formation will happen depends on the lone electron in the outer most orbit of the atom. When the atom is highly excited as will occur when the element newly condenses out of a plasma, this electron will tend to orbit at extreme distance from the excited atom. A collection of these atoms will aggregate together and are  connected and held together in a solid crystal by these outermost electrons  that orbit on the outside of the entire particle as and electron cloud like comets that orbit the sun and planets at the extreme edge of the solar system in the Kuiper belt.
These particles do not replace the nickel micro particles but greatly supplement them in SPP soliton production. The nickel particles are required to produce a coherent quantum mechanical environment to activate activity in the nano particles.
The nano particle must be free floating in the gas envelope of the reactor so that they may aggregate freely together in clumps of many nano particles. These clumps come together under the action of mutual electrostatic attraction produced by dipole vibrations on the surface of each particle caused by heat.
Each particle has a plus side and a minus side that align when the particles come together.
Just having a pile of immobile metal(nickel or palladium) nano particles in a large pile are not effective.
The gas envelop need not be pure hydrogen. On the contrary, the envelop gas may be any one of a number of dielectric gases such as oxygen, hydrogen/oxygen(OH), or chlorine or combinations thereof. Nitrogen is a LENR poison, and so is deuterium.
Even water condensing out of a plasma will form solid nano particles. Even noble gases like helium and neon form nano particles under certain conditions, but argon is a LENR poison.
There may be many chemical compounds that will form LENR active nano particles. I believe that Randel Mills has done extensive work over many years to identify  these nano particle active compounds that he calls catalysts. A LENR reactor builder will be well served to read and become familiar with the list of catalysts identified by Mills.
Here, skip the theory and only use the experimental data.

Any chemical compound that when heated produce nano particles (dusty plasma) will be LENR active to some extent.
Even an electric arc as in Mizuno's experiment will produce free floating nano particles from pure elements like nickel.
Exploding metal foils in water  will produce metal nano particles which generate LENR activity.
A laser blasting a metal will produce LENR activity in water is the Laser frequency and the metal are matched based on reflectivity.
Cavitation produces LENR activity when collapsing cavitation bubbles produce solid water nano particles from plasma.
Each element or chemical compound has an optimal heat range that will best produce abundant nano particles. Lithium, for example, requires a high temperature to vaporize. Therefore Lithium is effective in a high temperature LENR reactor configuration. Potassium has a lower optimum heat range and is more suited for intermediate temperature reactor operation. Cesium has  the lowest vaporization temperature, so cesium will be well suited for a low temperature reactor. Cesium will not work in a high temperature reactor because cesium will never produce nano particles from condensation from plasma in that high temperature situation.
Aluminum might work  as a LENR catalyst producing nano particles from condensing vapor in a reactor at 2000C as in a reactor meltdown. 

1 comment:

  1. Would some of these recommendations allow somewhat lower operating temperatures than those seen in the data of Александр Пархомов.