Comment No 258 to: The Physics of why the e-Cat’s Cold Fusion Claims Collapseby Ethan Siegel http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2011/12/05/the-nuclear-physics-of-why-we/ This is the
sketch of the New Paradigm, this explains the resultsOf the Rossi
Report No. 2 A nuclear reaction
occurs when a sufficient quantity of energy is applied to the nucleus/nuclei.
Nuclear fission: in splitting the atom, the initiating energy is found mostly
in the energized and unstable uranium nucleus, where the free neutron is the
final feather that triggers the release of potential energy upon entering that
nucleus to tip the energy balance beyond the threshold of nuclear disruption.
Nuclear fusion (hot): fusion of stable elements, all the energy of disruption
must come from outside the nucleus since those nuclei are all usually in their
lowest energy state. In a fusion reaction, a high energy laser or a bank of
superconducting magnets supplies the huge amounts of energy provided by a giant
machine that is the size of a football stadium. This energy is used to squeeze
the hydrogen atoms together so that they bump into each other so hard that they
break through the electromagnetic shell that keeps the elements separate.
LENR is an alternative, new way, something different from both fission and hot
fusion; the conundrum is where all that required disruptive energy comes from,
and usually from a microscopic structure that is too small to be even seen. The
problem is how to control this disruptive energy
The key concept that explains this mystery of LENR is extreme energy
concentration at the atomic level and its precise focusing on a small volume of
This energy concentration mechanism is the primary engine of causation that
underpins LENR in all its many and varied guises.
The next question that comes up is what can carry force into the nucleus? The
answer: the force of magnetism is that form of energy that projects disruptive
energy into the nucleus.
There are a number of methods in LENR that first creates and then strengthens
this magnetic force to a power level sufficient to disrupt the nuclear binding
force. To keep things simple, we will restrict ourselves to the technology and
the science used to make the Ni/H reactor work. That science is called Nanoplasmonics.
The discovery and basics of nanoplamonics
Nanoplasmonics is a very new science. This science sprang into existence from a
technique of chemical analysis created by our Founding Father, Martin
Fleischmann in 1974- see please what says Greg Goble here:http://coldfusionnow.org/science-inspired-by-martin-fleischmann/
This science took a turn into optics some 19 years ago when Mark I. Stockman
discovered that hot spots developed in a pile of nanoparticles Fast growing,
diversification, discoveries, applications have followed; now Nanoplasmonics is
in a stage of accelerated development. See this relevant paper for the basics:http://www.phy-astr.gsu.edu/stockman/data/Stockman_Phys_Today_2011_Physics_behind_Applications.pdfor
perform a fast search on Google Scholar.
Nanoplasmonics is a branch of optical condensed matter science devoted to
optical phenomena on the nanoscale in nanostructured metal systems. A
remarkable property of such systems is their ability to store the optical
energy concentrated on the nanoscale due to modes called surface plasmons (SPs).
This explanation and its understanding are not easy. It requires us to grasp
how heat, radiation and electrons affect each other in the lattice and in the
surrounding gas envelope. This comprehension is vital to the control and
mastery of the LENR Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni/H) reactor.
One of the key concepts to appreciate is resonance in all its many forms. It is
a cornerstone of LENR. In LENR, one instance of resonance builds on the next in
a ladder of powerful exponentially increasing interdependent processes of
self-reinforcing amplification. Surprisingly, these resonant processes affect
just a few critical parameters that drive the LENR reaction.
To get this description started, the explanation of the LENR reaction begins
with how the boundary between a metal and an insulator forms a perfect mirror
which confines light and electrons within a few nanometers of the surface of
the metal. When this mirror is at its very best, very little light and
electrons can escape to the far field. The surface of the metal becomes a black
hole for EMF where light and electrons can enter but cannot escape.
Collective charge oscillations at the boundaries between an insulating
dielectric medium (such as air or glass or in our example hydrogen) and a metal
(such as gold, silver, and copper or in our example nickel) are able to sustain
the propagation of visible-frequency electromagnetic waves (EMF) or in our case
infrared EMF known as surface-plasmon-polaritons (SPP).
SPPs are guided along metal-dielectric interfaces much in the same way that
light can be guided by an optical fiber, with the unique characteristic of sub
wavelength-scale confinement perpendicular to the interface. In other words,
the SPPs sticks like glue to the metal surface.
An SPP is a strange and wonderful form of EMF. An infrared light photon becomes
part of the electron when the energy of the two becomes equal. Being trapped
together, because the photon and the electron bounce around on the surface of
the metal for so long, the waveforms of both change constantly under the
influence of destructive interference. This is called Fano resonance. Fano
resonance is like a Cuisinart for EMF. It chops and blends electrons and
photons together until the EMF mix contains only SPPs. In this blending
process, SPPs acquire the most desirable characteristics of both photons and
An SPP is now converted from an electron: a fermion to a boson: a force
carrier. Most of the mass and the charge of the electron are lost in SPP
formation but a very small amount of mass remains. But the spin of the SPP is
increased to 1, which is the spin of the photon. The SPP now becomes a powerful
carrier of spin, the source of the atomic level magnetic field and it has lost
the charge that prevents concentration of electrons from occurring.
Now, the SPPs allow for an unlimited concentration of spin carrying particles
to accumulate at the surface of the metal.
The spin of all those SPPs must be given a coherent and productive form to be
more effective. This is accomplished by chopping the metal lattice into
nano-sized pieces called nana-particles. These particles are sized from 50nm to
as small as 1 or 2 nm. Because they are so small, they possess a huge
curvature. In other words, they are very sharp. This extreme curvature forces
the SPPs to form a tight vortex current on the surface of one of the sides of
the nano-particle just like a big rock forms a vortex hole in a river rapid.
Another type of resonant wave is forms called a whispering gallery wave. This
circular wave continues the standardization of the wavelengths of the SPPs
through more Fano resonance. The end result is the formation of a lone spin
wave with a single huge amplitude at a single frequency in the extreme
ultraviolet. Such a solitary wave is called a soliton.
In the vortex flow of all the SPPs, they will combine their individual wave
forms into a single waveform that projects the sum of their combined spin into
a narrow beam axially located and projecting normal to the direction of the
vortex flow. That narrow beam of spin is called an anapole magnetic field. The
SPP soliton is also known as a magnetic monopole.
Gold is the metal of choice in nanoplasmonic experimentation. In Nanoplasmonics
experimentation, a concentration of EMF power is routinely observed in the gap
between gold nanoparticles demonstrating an EMF amplification factor of 10^^9.
The record of such observed EMF application is a factor of 10^^15 or 100
trillion watts per cm2. That is existing science mind you.
Now let’s think about the Ecat: if Rossi has succeeded in increasing that EMF
application power by another 7 orders of magnitude, what would happen to the
matter in the vicinity of that amplified EMF field?
The Ni/H reactor technology has advanced power concentration over what can be
produced by the spherical gold particles in nanoplasmonic experiments through
material and technological improvements as follows:
1 – Rossi invented a compound nickel micro particle comprised of a solid core
with a nanowire coating. This improvement increases EMF power amplification
over anything that Nanoplasmonics can provide.
2 – The use of dielectric pressurized hydrogen instead of ambient air is
another power amplification improvement that has been added in the Ni/H
technology. A strong dielectric factor of pressurized hydrogen keeps the SPPs
confined on the surface of the nickel micro-particle.
3 – Rossi uses nickel which is best suited for nanoplasmonic reactions
involving infrared light. The performance of the metal in the nanoplasmonic
reaction is proportional to its ability to reflect the light that powers the
reaction. Gold and silver are good at visible wavelengths, but are not so good
at infrared light. Nickel is almost a perfect reflector of infrared light and
therefore best suited in reactions in a hot Ni/H reactor. Nickel keeps the loss
of light to a minimum by not absorbing any.
4 – The size of the nickel particles are also another improvement over
nanoplasmonic technology. Five microns is the resonant black body particle size
that corresponds to optimum dipole vibrations at 400C. Dipole thermal
vibrations carried by one dimensional ballistic superconductivity provided by
nickel nanowires are the EMF energy source that will be amplified by the other
aforementioned power amplification mechanisms to produce a magnetic soliton
carrying 6*10^^23 electrons converted into surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs)
through infrared photon entanglement. This entanglement allows for massive
packing of a huge numbers of spin carrying particles into the magnetic soliton
at the tip of each nanowire. In LENR+, this is called static Nuclear Active
Environment (NAE) because the soliton that each nanowire produces is fixed and
immovable at the tip of each nanowire. These NAE provides a reaction bootstrap
effect for the dynamic NAE described below.
What would such a concentration of magnetic energy (10^^16 tesla) do to the
matter in a few nanometers of the projected anapole magnetic beam coming from
the soliton? This magnetic force is the biggest concentration of magnetism to
be found in the universe.
If a billion of these solitons were entangled in a SPP Bose Einstein Condensate
in a coherent power grid (like a laser) with each member of the ensemble
providing power to the each individual reaction participant, what would be the
result? I would guess a huge projection of magnetic power that will disrupt the
atomic forces enclosed in the path of its beam.
To describe the SPP BEC in more detailed terms, the SPP has another important
advantage over the electron. Because it is a force carrier, it is very social.
And because of the Coulomb barrier, the election is a loner and hates to crowd
together. Because it is a boson and very light, the SPP will readily form a
Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) at very high temperatures. Most people think
that a BEC can only be formed at temperatures near absolute zero. This low
temperature requirement is only applicable because the very heavy atoms are
used to form low temperature BECs. Atoms are very heavy as condensates go. When
a particle is almost massless, its BEC can form at and then persist at
extremely high temperatures. Therefore, all the SPP solitons that reside inside
the hot Ni/H reactor will readily form into a BEC.
This condensate will contribute to all the miracles associated with LENR. It
will shield gamma radiation by thermalizing it through a distribution to all
the members of the BEC. It will also lend energy to the soliton that decides to
disrupt one or more atoms. It acts as a power grid that connects all the
solitons that have formed inside the Ni/H reactor whereby these solitons share
both incoming and outgoing energy equitably.
I will end with a description of the nuclear active environment (NAE) where the
rubber meets the road in the Ni/H reactor.
My understanding of the NAE in the Ni/H reactor is informed by the way the
Rossi reactor melts down.
It looks to me that there is a two stage NAE process at play. We call these two
NAE mechanisms static NAE and dynamic NAE.
At initialization of the Ni/H process, the reaction is first carried by the 5
micron nickel particles at the time before the initiation of plasma formation.
This powder is in a confined volume but is comprised of many nano sized
sources: nanowires that cover the micro-powder. These nanowires produce a
soliton at or near their tips. These solitons are fixed to these tips, but they
produce enough heat and soliton coherence to start the BEC formation process.
These solitons must be periodically pumped by a plasma formation process that
injects energy into the solitons to make up for losses that are produced by
dispersion. These LENR structures are subcritical which means they need to be
pumped vigorously to retain their nuclear activity.
There is a stage of reactor activity when dynamically formed NAE forms in the
hydrogen envelope as a result of nanoparticle formation through condensation of
plasma produced by the periodic plasma formation burst.
These nanoparticles will gather under self-aggregation and begin to concentrate
optical power. Similar to the way a lightning bolt is formed, when the
aggregation get big enough and the magnetic power level is high enough, a
nuclear reaction is initiated by the projection of a magnetic beam into the
surrounding hydrogen Rydberg crystals. One or more atoms are disrupted and are
reorganized into a new nuclear configuration. The excess nuclear binding energy
is fed back into the BEC power connect and storage and the nanoparticle
aggregation is partially or totally destroyed.
The magnetic power that is projected by the nanoparticle aggregate is proportional
to the number of nanoparticles in that aggregation.
Being subcritical, as more and more nanoparticle aggregations are disassembled
or destroyed, the Ni/H starts to lose its ability to produce power.
The next plasma pulse will rebuild the dynamic NAE at the beginning of the next
power cycle. It will also pump energy into the static NAE to reenergize them
If the Dynamic NAE is overstimulated, its hell to pay and a positive feedback
cycle begins in which Dynamic NAE produce more new aggregations than are destroyed;
and a reactor meltdown results.The meltdown has nothing to do with the static NAE centered
on the nickel micro particles which have melted into a liquid early on in the
meltdown process.The positive feedback meltdown loop will persist even in the
face of an uncontrolled and accelerating reaction for as long as the hydrogen
envelope remains intact.
In summation, there are many enabling details that I did not get into just so I
could keep things simple. But this subject is far from simple. In recent times
I am coming to believe that LENR is a critical part of science that is not
appreciated and could answer many of the profound mysteries that have come up
in science. Let us hope that level of LENR acceptance increases markedly in the
very near future.