Guest Editorial by AXIL AXIL
Ophelia get thee to a nanoplasmonery, go!
(conclusion of a discussion with reader Ophelia Rump, at Ecat World)
After 5 years of thinking about Cold Fusion, I have concluded that only Homo Faber can help Homo sapiens to win in this field. After 25 years, this idea had been reinforced- no alternative to a LENR working energy generator exists. However Homo Sapiens fully deserve to be helped- he is discovering wonderful NEW things, Science is alive, well, and creative, it is great!
This editorial written by Axil is a perfect example of the unstoppable scientific progress.
LENR, the third way
A nuclear reaction occurs when a sufficient quantity of energy is applied to the nucleus/nuclei.
Nuclear fission: in splitting the atom, the initiating energy is found mostly in the energized and unstable uranium nucleus, where the free neutron is the final feather that triggers the release of potential energy upon entering that nucleus to tip the energy balance beyond the threshold of nuclear disruption.
Nuclear fusion (hot): fusion of stable elements, all the energy of disruption must come from outside the nucleus since those nuclei are all usually in their lowest energy state. In a fusion reaction, a high energy laser or a bank of superconducting magnets supplies the huge amounts of energy provided by a giant machine that is the size of a football stadium. This energy is used to squeeze the hydrogen atoms together so that they bump into each other so hard that they break through the electromagnetic shell that keeps the elements separate.
LENR is an alternative, new way, something different from both fission and hot fusion; the conundrum is where all that required disruptive energy comes from, and usually from a microscopic structure that is too small to be even seen. The problem is how to control this disruptive energy
The key concept that explains this mystery of LENR is extreme energy concentration at the atomic level and its precise focusing on a small volume of space.
This energy concentration mechanism is the primary engine of causation that underpins LENR in all its many and varied guises.
The next question that comes up is what can carry force into the nucleus? The answer: the force of magnetism is that form of energy that projects disruptive energy into the nucleus.
There are a number of methods in LENR that first creates and then strengthens this magnetic force to a power level sufficient to disrupt the nuclear binding force. To keep things simple, we will restrict ourselves to the technology and the science used to make the Ni/H reactor work. That science is called Nanoplasmonics.
The discovery and basics of nanoplamonics
Nanoplasmonics is a very new science. This science sprang into existence from a technique of chemical analysis created by our Founding Father, Martin Fleischmann in 1974- see please what says Greg Goble here:
This science took a turn into optics some 19 years ago when Mark I. Stockman discovered that hot spots developed in a pile of nanoparticles. Fast growing, diversification, discoveries, applications have followed; now Nanoplasmonics is in a stage of accelerated development. See this relevant paper for the basics:
or perform a fast search on Google Scholar.
Nanoplasmonics is a branch of optical condensed matter science, devoted to optical phenomena on the nanoscale in nanostructured metal systems. A remarkable property of such systems is their ability to store the optical energy concentrated on the nanoscale due to modes called surface plasmons (SPs).
This explanation and its understanding are not easy. It requires us to grasp how heat, radiation and electrons affect each other in the lattice and in the surrounding gas envelope. This comprehension is vital to the control and mastery of the LENR Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni/H) reactor.
One of the key concepts to appreciate is resonance in all its many forms. It is a cornerstone of LENR. In LENR, one instance of resonance builds on the next in a ladder of powerful exponentially increasing interdependent processes of self-reinforcing amplification. Surprisingly, these resonant processes affect just a few critical parameters that drive the LENR reaction.
To get this description started, the explanation of the LENR reaction begins with how the boundary between a metal and an insulator forms a perfect mirror which confines light and electrons within a few nanometers of the surface of the metal. When this mirror is at its very best, very little light and electrons can escape to the far field. The surface of the metal becomes a black hole for EMF where light and electrons can enter but cannot escape.
Collective charge oscillations at the boundaries between an insulating dielectric medium (such as air or glass or in our example hydrogen) and a metal (such as gold, silver, and copper or in our example nickel) are able to sustain the propagation of visible-frequency electromagnetic waves (EMF) or in our case infrared EMF known as surface-plasmon-polaritons (SPP).
SPPs are guided along metal-dielectric interfaces much in the same way that light can be guided by an optical fiber, with the unique characteristic of sub wavelength-scale confinement perpendicular to the interface. In other words, the SPPs sticks like glue to the metal surface.
An SPP is a strange and wonderful form of EMF. An infrared light photon becomes part of the electron when the energy of the two becomes equal. Being trapped together, because the photon and the electron bounce around on the surface of the metal for so long, the waveforms of both changes constantly under the influence of destructive interference. This is called Fano resonance. Fano resonance is like a Cuisinart for EMF. It chops and blends electrons and photons together until the EMF mix contains only SPPs. In this blending process, SPPs acquire the most desirable characteristics of both photons and electrons.
An SPP is now converted from an electron: a fermion to a boson: a force carrier. Most of the mass and the charge of the electron are lost in SPP formation but a very small amount of mass remains. But the spin of the SPP is increased to 1, which is the spin of the photon. The SPP now becomes a powerful carrier of spin, the source of the atomic level magnetic field and it has lost the charge that prevents concentration of electrons from occurring.
Now, the SPPs allow for an unlimited concentration of spin carrying particles to accumulate at the surface of the metal.
The spin of all those SPPs must be given a coherent and productive form to be more effective. This is accomplished by chopping the metal lattice into nano-sized pieces called nana-particles. These particles are sized from 50nm to as small as 1 or 2 nm. Because they are so small, they possess a huge curvature. In other words, they are very sharp. This extreme curvature forces the SPPs to form a tight vortex current on the surface of one of the sides of the nano-particle just like a big rock forms a vortex hole in a river rapid.
Another type of resonant wave is forms called a whispering gallery wave. This circular wave continues the standardization of the wavelengths of the SPPs through more Fano resonance. The end result is the formation of a lone spin wave with a single huge amplitude at a single frequency in the extreme ultraviolet. Such a solitary wave is called a soliton.
In the vortex flow of all the SPPs, they will combine their individual wave forms into a single waveform that projects the sum of their combined spin into a narrow beam axially located and projecting normal to the direction of the vortex flow. That narrow beam of spin is called an anapole magnetic field. The SPP soliton is also known as a magnetic monopole.
Gold is the metal of choice in nanoplasmonic experimentation. In Nanoplasmonics experimentation, a concentration of EMF power is routinely observed in the gap between gold nanoparticles demonstrating an EMF amplification factor of 10^^9.
The record of such observed EMF application is a factor of 10^^15 or 100 trillion watts per cm2. That is existing science mind you.
How does nanoplasmonics work in/for LENR.
How does nanoplasmonics work in/for LENR.
Now let’s think about the Ecat: if Rossi has succeeded in increasing that EMF application power by another 7 orders of magnitude, what would happen to the matter in the vicinity of that amplified EMF field?
The Ni/H reactor technology has advanced power concentration over what can be produced by the spherical gold particles in nanoplasmonic experiments through material and technological improvements as follows:
1 - Rossi invented a compound nickel micro particle comprised of a solid core with a nanowire coating. This improvement increases EMF power amplification over anything that Nanoplasmonics can provide.
2 - The use of dielectric pressurized hydrogen instead of ambient air is another power amplification improvement that has been added in the Ni/H technology. A strong dielectric factor of pressurized hydrogen keeps the SPPs confined on the surface of the nickel micro-particle.
3 – Rossi uses nickel which is best suited for nanoplasmonic reactions involving infrared light. The performance of the metal in the nanoplasmonic reaction is proportional to its ability to reflect the light that powers the reaction. Gold and silver are good at visible wavelengths, but are not so good at infrared light. Nickel is almost a perfect reflector of infrared light and therefore best suited in reactions in a hot Ni/H reactor. Nickel keeps the loss of light to a minimum by not absorbing any.
4 - The size of the nickel particles are also another improvement over nanoplasmonic technology. Five microns is the resonant black body particle size that corresponds to optimum dipole vibrations at 400C. Dipole thermal vibrations carried by one dimensional ballistic superconductivity provided by nickel nanowires are the EMF energy source that will be amplified by the other aforementioned power amplification mechanisms to produce a magnetic soliton carrying 6*10^^23 electrons converted into surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) through infrared photon entanglement. This entanglement allows for massive packing of a huge numbers of spin carrying particles into the magnetic soliton at the tip of each nanowire. In LENR+, this is called static Nuclear Active Environment (NAE) because the soliton that each nanowire produces is fixed and immovable at the tip of each nanowire. These NAE provides a reaction bootstrap effect for the dynamic NAE described below.
What would such a concentration of magnetic energy (10^^16 tesla) do to the matter in a few nanometers of the projected anapole magnetic beam coming from the soliton? This magnetic force is the biggest concentration of magnetism to be found in the universe.
If a billion of these solitons were entangled in a SPP Bose Einstein Condensate in a coherent power grid (like a laser) with each member of the ensemble providing power to the each individual reaction participant, what would be the result? I would guess a huge projection of magnetic power that will disrupt the atomic forces enclosed in the path of its beam.
To describe the SPP BEC in more detailed terms, the SPP has another important advantage over the electron. Because it is a force carrier, it is very social. And because of the Coulomb barrier, the election is a loner and hates to crowd together. Because it is a boson and very light, the SPP will readily form a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) at very high temperatures. Most people think that a BEC can only be formed at temperatures near absolute zero. This low temperature requirement is only applicable because the very heavy atoms are used to form low temperature BECs. Atoms are very heavy as condensates go. When a particle is almost massless, its BEC can form at and then persist at extremely high temperatures. Therefore, all the SPP solitons that reside inside the hot Ni/H reactor will readily form into a BEC.
This condensate will contribute to all the miracles associated with LENR. It will shield gamma radiation by thermalizing it through a distribution to all the members of the BEC. It will also lend energy to the soliton that decides to disrupt one or more atoms. It acts as a power grid that connects all the solitons that have formed inside the Ni/H reactor whereby these solitons share both incoming and outgoing energy equitably.
I will end with a description of the nuclear active environment (NAE) where the rubber meets the road in the Ni/H reactor.
My understanding of the NAE in the Ni/H reactor is informed by the way the Rossi reactor melts down.
It looks to me that there is a two stage NAE process at play. We call these two NAE mechanisms static NAE and dynamic NAE.
At initialization of the Ni/H process, the reaction is first carried by the 5 micron nickel particles at the time before the initiation of plasma formation. This powder is in a confined volume but is comprised of many nano sized sources: nanowires that cover the micro-powder. These nanowires produce a soliton at or near their tips. These solitons are fixed to these tips, but they produce enough heat and soliton coherence to start the BEC formation process. These solitons must be periodically pumped by a plasma formation process that injects energy into the solitons to make up for losses that are produced by dispersion. These LENR structures are subcritical which means they need to be pumped vigorously to retain their nuclear activity.
There is a stage of reactor activity when dynamically formed NAE forms in the hydrogen envelope as a result of nanoparticle formation through condensation of plasma produced by the periodic plasma formation burst.
These nanoparticles will gather under self-aggregation and begin to concentrate optical power. Similar to the way a lightning bolt is formed, when the aggregation get big enough and the magnetic power level is high enough, a nuclear reaction is initiated by the projection of a magnetic beam into the surrounding hydrogen Rydberg crystals. One or more atoms are disrupted and are reorganized into a new nuclear configuration. The excess nuclear binding energy is fed back into the BEC power connect and storage and the nanoparticle aggregation is partially or totally destroyed.
The magnetic power that is projected by the nanoparticle aggregate is proportional to the number of nanoparticles in that aggregation.
Being subcritical, as more and more nanoparticle aggregations are disassembled or destroyed, the Ni/H starts to lose its ability to produce power.
The next plasma pulse will rebuild the dynamic NAE at the beginning of the next power cycle. It will also pump energy into the static NAE to reenergize them
If the Dynamic NAE is overstimulated, its hell to pay and a positive feedback cycle begins in which Dynamic NAE produce more new aggregations than are destroyed; and a reactor meltdown results.
The meltdown has nothing to do with the static NAE centered on the nickel micro particles which have melted into a liquid early on in the meltdown process.
The positive feedback meltdown loop will persist even in the face of an uncontrolled and accelerating reaction for as long as the hydrogen envelope remains intact.
In summation, there are many enabling details that I did not get into just so I could keep things simple. But this subject is far from simple. In recent times I am coming to believe that LENR is a critical part of science that is not appreciated and could answer many of the profound mysteries that have come up in science. Let us hope that level of LENR acceptance increases markedly in the very near future.