Thursday, August 15, 2013


Lasciate ogni speranze voi che LENRate! (Dante)

Those working in the field of LENR- in a way or other have discouragingly few certainties and, what’s worse their certainties are disturbingly different. My own basic certainty to which I have arrived to around 1991, is that the reactions generating excess heat are very local taking place in active sites as heterogeneous catalysis does.
I am sharing this idea with more colleagues; our perhaps most influential scientist and thinker, Dr. Edmund Storms has developed the idea to the level of a theory- of NAE –nuclear active environment. See please his presentation at ICCF-18, “Explaining Cold Fusion.” - the abstracts is at:
Dr. Storms and I agree that the role of these active sites in LENR is vital; however there is no agreement between us regarding the “life” or activity inside the active sites/NAE. It would be interesting to know how many LENR-ists, experimentalists and theorists think these active sites are the key and how many think differently. This question is related to n other idea about which I wrote recently: can a mono-theory explain LENR or it is necessary and interdisciplinary approach- combinations of different theories? Mono-theories vs. pluri-theories? This division is still greatly naïve wishful thinking from my part, searching for an unique theory explaining everything
is still the dominant philosophy, one smart concept, one universal solution.
However my disagreement re. active sites with Dr. Storms and many other colleagues has an other aspect, much more pragmatic: I have hypothesized long ago that CF/LENR’s endemic destructive sickness, weakness, curse whatever- d(r)eadfully bad reproducibility of the results is caused by the competition of gas  molecules with the reactive deuterium for the active sites- and deuterium is the loser. First I thought that only the very polar impurities, containing C, S or N are the culprit but later I conclude that any gas, including inert nitrogen or noble gases can act as invaders letting poor hydrogen isotopes – homeless.
The absolute lack of success of my poisoning hypothesis- nobody took it seriously was very probably my greatest failure ever and an extremal case of Cassandra Syndrome generating even the necessity
of creating a verbal antinomy of “to persuade”. The idea is childish, primitive, simplistic, is too mundane, lacks elegance and mathematics, is dirty, non-demonstrable (you cannot see a nitrogen molecule keeping away a deuterium molecule on a potential active site), has no practical solution for the classic PdD electrolysis cell- this cannot be made anaerobic. And if say some very rare circumstances as a cathode protected by  monomolecular layer of tensioactive substance, then comes the next trouble- small density of active sites. The genius of our best scientists was not able to solve the reproducibility problem for LENR classic.

I have learned from professor Francesco Piantelli the essential importance of deep degassing- before putting nickel in contact with hydrogen, the surface of the metal must be absolutely free

of any molecules of gas. This is so well described in  EP2368252. (search please for my “odes” dedicated to WO 2010/058288 in this blog.)

For some time I have believed that that the LENR+ systems due to the in-situ mechanism of NAE-genesis are more tolerant toward alien gases. From Rossi no data can be obtained, however very recently Defkalion has described the importance of degassing for their well working technological process. Describing what has happened at the Demo of July 23, Yiannis Hadjichristos wrote, by the way to our colleague Abd:

Answering in advance to your next question on controllability please note:
Before running the demo of 23rd we had sent a protocol that we were to follow to ICCF and we conducted a shorter demo with H2 at 22nd in parallel with a general discussion on "CF" with Italian journalists, broadcasted also to the public. The later was following the same protocol and gave a COP approx 3.5 at the level of 7.5kW output. After this short demo we degassed the reactor over night pumping out all H2 in order to run the next day a control run using Ar.
This degassing procedure is crucial and must be followed every time we have to open the reactor (which we did not in this case) or when we have to change gas i.e. from Ar to H2 or vice versa.
Any "alien" gas remaining in the reactor affects the objective of the test as far as active sites might be occupied by the wrong gas.
At 23rd we pumped Ar into the reactor and run a control test resulting to COP 0.82, using the same main input parameters (gas pressure, input currents and coolant flow) as in the demo of 22nd. Even with max input currents the reactor's internal or surface temperatures and coolant’s temperature could not exceed, as expected, the demonstrated values.
We stop that run and we had available about 45min to degas Ar in order to synchronize the demo with the broadcasting program and ICCF18 scheduled activities EVEN THOUGH WE WERE VIOLATING A TYPICAL PROTOCOL that requires at least 8h of degassing in order to remove Ar properly. During this degassing procedure Mats Lewan blew up the main fuse of the building trying to connect an oscilloscope to the electric board. This event reduced the degassing time available to about 30min.
At the beginning of the second part of the demo using H2 I warned the audience that we might expect a negative effect to the performance of the reactor because of that partial degassing of Ar. I had to do this as we have witnessed several times in the past the results of the presence of wrong gases in the performance as they block the active sites to be turned to NAEs. You can see the results in the videos still available in the internet both in the performance and the temperature signals that raised, as expected, to much higher levels than the Ar test even though the input power was gradually reduced compared with the Ar test and the coolant flow was the same as in the Ar run.  We calculated later that the R5 performance was reduced by aprox 40% in that second test because of the limited Ar degassing.”

Yiannis has also told me that based on their technological experience they have standardized the conditions of deep degassing for the three possible cases: a) when a reactor was opened for inspection; b) degassing to remove Ar after a control test and c) degassing H2 to prepare a control test. As he has mentioned during the test case c) needs the most drastic conditions because even very small quantities of residual hydrogen can generate heat and lead to a false positive in a control test.   These data, seen in the context of hat we have already learned show us that DGT’s technology is remarkably mature, however in the same time this is also a warning for LENR classic: “no deep degassing, no reliable excess heat, story finished, dura lex sed lex!”

While there can be some hope  for systems with preformed nanostructures to be converted in LENR+ with NAE formed continuously in situ (the unique way to success), the classic electrochemical Pd D system will remain only …"scientific". However the impossibility to degas it will perturb any Pd D     LENR investigation; I will not say “for ever” because it sounds so sensationalist. The Motto suggests that PdD, LENR classic-classic will remain captive in the Irreproducibility Hell. However the author of the Motto has stated “The path to paradise begins in hell.” (Dante Alighieri) As the Italians would tell “Andiamo!” Let’s go!

It is possible this essay will convince some colleagues that alien gas molecules are destroying the chances of PdD to function reproducibly or, even better to stimulate them to demonstrate by triumphal experiments, brightly that I am, in this case for sure, in deep stupid error. And the gas poisoning hypothesis deserves its sad fate.


PS In my fantasy LENR world the PdD system is so passé. I hear the voice of future. Our friend and collaborator of my blog, Axil whom I consider the Father of the New Wave Thinking n LENR+ has written this miniature these days- it is the voice of the near future:

In Kim's ICCF 18 paper. there are two references to nanoplasmonic papers [16, 17]. Also, DGT has been famously quoted as stating that LENR should stand for nanoplasmonics: 

However, readers who are aware of nanoplasmonics—a new area of science dealing with the interaction of photons with matter including nuclei or sub-nuclear particles—will be interested to read how scientists at the Defkalion Green Technologies (DGT) lab now describe phenomena that they see happening in DGT’s excess-heat-producing Hyperion product. Instead of using the term low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR), DGT has been calling the process HENI—heat energy from nuclear interactions. A recent breakthrough resulted in a change; instead of the “N” standing for nuclear, it now stands for nanoplasmonics. I expect that this simpler interpretation of the phenomena could help with the public image of this field and its products. Could it also build alliances with other academic fields


  1. Many of us have already accepted the idea of LENR Plus under its various guises and names, it is the hint of enormous EM Fields with well over 1 Tesla strength that now excites many of us. Dr. Storms says we do not have sufficient evidence to be so credulous with, so far, unsupported claims, Axil considers the claims to be credible because they are reasonable within the framework of nanoplasmonics and related theories he is familiar with. I suspect the claims are valid, but to what degree and what magnitude under what circumstances has not yet been made clear. Discussions regarding the nature of this phenomena cannot be fruitful until precise data is available for examination. None the less, this is an exciting prospect to ponder, the EM Field is something new to me, with the EMF not exactly behaving like a permanent magnet type, neither being an electromagnetic type of EMF, Axil thinks it is a quantum effect, whatever it turns out to be, I think there is a distinct possibility that any such EM Field will prove to be the one "Thing" that holds the most promise for future developments in the burgeoning LENR Plus field

    1. Dear Nixter,
      Things in LENR+ will accelerate soon, new knowledge will
      accumualte, new questions and answers will appear in
      an environment very different from what we call now LENR.
      It is waste of time and sometimes evn dangerous to raise
      conclusions based on still lacunary just developing information Thank you for your message.

  2. some ways around the surface contamination problem with Pd are: to make it in situ like co-dep , to overcoat electrochemical system with NAFION (proton conductor) after anodizing cleaning, ...

    1. Co-deposition brings some improvement but only partial
      because the heavy water is saturated with air and the freshly formed surfaces are contaminated at birth. The dominant species is nitrogen not influenced by the electrical field. NAFION is an excellent idea but it seems
      the layers has holes.
      IMHO the best would have been an optimized mixture of a cation-active surfactant and a non-ionic surfactant but
      this needs sudy and research. I have discussed this illo tempore with more colleagues- but as I have told nobody has
      believed me that CF is suffocated (locally) by air. The idea is tooo simple. Unfortunately it is true and powerful
      in the most negative sense.

  3. What the Ni/H reactor does is to convert heat into concentrated electric and magnetic fields. Pure hydrogen is required to perform this function.

    The first step in this conversion process is to convert heat into dipole oscillations. Hydrogen helps to do this by trapping infrared photons that fall on the surface of the nickel micro-particles from being reflected back from their shiny metal surfaces.

    Hydrogen turns these tiny metal particles into tiny greenhouses which retains the heat so well that few photons escape.

    If other gases happen to mix with hydrogen at the surface of these nickel particles, heat will rapidly escape from the surface of the metal particles robbing them of the energy that they need to move their surface dipoles into excited agitation.

    Even a small amount of hydrogen gas contamination wills greatly weaken the insolation properties of the hydrogen.

    The contaminating gases act as a short circuiting pathway for the heat to get through the hydrogen insolation.

    The interaction of metals with electromagnetic radiation is largely dictated by the free conduction electrons in the metal. According to the simple Drude model, the free electrons oscillate 180± out of phase relative to the driving electric field. As a consequence, most metals possess a negative dielectric constant at optical frequencies which causes e.g. a very high reflectivity.

    Furthermore, at optical frequencies the metal’s free electron gas can sustain surface and volume charge density oscillations, called plasmon polaritons or plasmons with distinct resonance frequencies. The existence of plasmons is characteristic for the interaction of metal nanostructures with light.

    In simple words, metal will reflect heat especially well if that heat is in the deep infrared.

    The surface charge density oscillations associated with surface plasmons at the interface between a metal and a dielectric can give rise to strongly enhanced optical near-fields which are spatially confined to the interface at the surface of the particles.

    Similarly, if the electron gas is confined in three dimensions, as in the case of a small subwavelength particle, the overall displacement of the electrons with respect to the positively charged lattice leads to a restoring force which in turn gives rise to specific particle plasmon resonances depending on the geometry of the particle. In particles of suitable (usually pointed) shape, extreme local charge accumulations can occur that are accompanied by strongly enhanced optical fields.

    This behavior of heat and light at the surface of tiny particles is what nanopasmonics is all about.

    What drives this special behavior is the evanescent wave. This trapping wave keeps the EMF energy levels strong at the surface of the micro-particles.

    More on this wave type in the next post.

    1. Dear Axil, fantastic thriller like construction, Really, except one detail: how these constructions explained a excess of energy ?

    2. In the latest theories of the nucleus, Anapole magnetic fields are produced by monopole field magnetic generation by quark/antiquark pairs inside nuclear subatomic particles. In the latest standard model theories of the nucleus, quarks are monopoles.

      This idea comes from the newly developing theory of quantum chromodynamics called the dual superconductor model.

      For more background on this theory see as follows:

      Non-Abelian dual superconductivity and Gluon propagators in the deep IR region for SU(3) Yang-Mills theory.

      In this theory of quantum chromodynamics, the dual superconductor model attempts to explain confinement of quarks in terms of an electromagnetic dual theory of superconductivity.

      According to this theory, the strong force is just works in reverse of electromagnetic behavior when EMF is active inside the nucleus of the atom.

      In this electromagnetic dual theory, the roles of electric and magnetic fields are interchanged. In standard EMF theory, the BCS theory of superconductivity explains superconductivity as the result of the condensation of electric charges into Cooper pairs.

      In a dual superconductor nuclear model, an analogous effect occurs through the condensation of magnetic charges generated by quarks (also called magnetic monopoles). In ordinary electromagnetic theory, no monopoles have been shown to exist.

      However, in quantum chromodynamics — the theory of color charge which explains the strong interaction between quarks — the color charges can be viewed as (non-abelian) analogues of electric charges and corresponding magnetic monopoles are known to exist. Dual superconductor models posit that condensation of these magnetic monopoles in a superconductive state explains color confinement — the phenomenon that only neutrally colored bound states are observed at low energies.

      Color confinement is the area of nuclear activity where the LENR reaction operates.

      Qualitatively, confinement in dual superconductor models can be understood as a result of the dual to the Meissner effect. The Meissner effect says that a superconducting metal will try to expel magnetic field lines from its interior. If a magnetic field is forced to run through the superconductor, the electric field lines are compressed in magnetic flux tubes.

      In a dual superconductor the roles of magnetic and electric fields are exchanged and the Meissner effect tries to expel electric field lines.

      Quarks and antiquarks carry opposite color charges, and for a quark–antiquark pair 'electric' field lines run from the quark to the antiquark. In a pion, the quark–antiquark pair is immersed in a vacuum based dual superconductor (aka the Higgs field), and then the electric field lines get compressed into a flux tube.

      The confinement energy carried by the tube is proportional to its length, and the potential energy of the quark–antiquark is proportional to their separation. The energy of colored objects gets large if quark/antiquark pair moves apart by any significant distance. A quark–antiquark will therefore always bind regardless of their separation, which explains why no unbound quarks are ever found.

      Dual superconductors are described by (a dual) the Landau–Ginzburg model, which is equivalent to the Abelian Higgs model. The MIT bag model boundary conditions for gluon fields are those of the dual color superconductor.

      Based on these theories, it is posited that a monopole field (aka anapole) will disrupt the duel superconductive mechanism that keeps the nucleus and the nucleons that make it up together.

    3. Part 2

      How can this monopole magnetic field disrupt a nucleus?

      The Higgs theory is a superconductive magnetic mechanism of QCD and states that quarks are monopoles. The pions can be interpreted as the magnetic gauge boson.

      Hadron physics as Seiberg dual of QCD

      Ryuichiro Kitano (Tohoku U.)

      see also

      Origins of Mass by Frank Wilczek

      Page 12: One cannot tolerate, for example, anomalous color magnetic moments, for either quarks or gluons.

      If anomalous quantum chromodynamic magnetic Moments can be induced inside the nucleus, we can perturb inner workings of the nuclear mechanism.

      This is what the Ni/H reactor does; it introduces anomalous color magnetic moments, for both quarks and gluons through projecting a briefly formed monopole field into the nucleus.

      One type pion that keeps the nucleus together is made of one up quark and one down antiquark.

      If we can find a source(s) of a monopole field in the Ni/H reactor, we may be able to explain transmutation of elements via disruption of the strong force mechanism.

      The duration of this anaopole field is a few picoseconds in length before the hotspot decomposes. By that is more than enough time for nuclear disruption to occur.

      I have some posts on the deeper layers of nanoplasmonic theory as follows:

      this post links to some others

    4. The evanescent wave

      There is an EMF power amplification factor of up to 10 to the 15 power experimentally demonstrated by nanolenzes formed by nanowires and nanoparticles.

      This is before the chemical probes that measure this power level are destroyed by the EMF originating from the “hot spot".

      The question is “how does such a concentration of power occur?”

      An evanescent wave exits in the near-field of a reflecting surface with an intensity that exhibits exponential decay with distance from the boundary at which the wave was formed. Evanescent waves are a general property of wave-equations, and can in principle occur in any context to which a wave-equation applies. They are formed at the boundary between two media with different wave motion properties, and are most intense within one third of a wavelength from the surface of formation.

      This is the reason why electric arking and dielectric boundaries are important in LENR. EMF amplification involves solutions of Maxwell’s equations and boundary conditions where imaginary solutions are manifest.


      Total internal reflection of light

      In the context of Ni/H LENR+, the boundary between nickel and pressurized hydrogen forms a boundary trap where the capacitive EMF(electrons) accumulate because there is a Total internal reflection of this EMF at the boundary of the metal hydrogen interface.

      These electron waves accumulate and superimpose constructively. This EMF wave function has no solution that transmits energy away from the boundary.

      Mathematically, evanescent waves can be characterized by a wave vector where one or more of the vector's components have an imaginary value.

      This coupling between the hydrogen dielectric that cover the nano-particle and/or the nickel micro-particle is directly analogous to the coupling between the primary and secondary coils of a transformer, or between the two plates of a capacitor. Mathematically, the process is the same as that of quantum tunneling, except with electromagnetic waves instead of quantum-mechanical wavefunction.

      This near surface interface boundary is the zone were electrons accumulate by a power concentration factor of trillions or more. It is this charge concentration that produces coulomb barrier lowering in the boundary layer where the evanescent wave forms.

      Fano resonance is the mechanism that mixes the electron and light waveforms together. The infrared radiation and dielectric oscillations of the excitons are the two waveforms involved.

      An exciton is a bound state of an electron and an electron hole which are attracted to each other by the electrostatic Coulomb force.

      The Fano resonance line-shape is due to interference between two scattering amplitudes, one due to scattering within a continuum of states (the background process) and the second due to an excitation of a discrete state (the resonant process). The energy of the resonant state must lie in the energy range of the continuum (background) states for the effect to occur. Near the resonant energy, the background scattering amplitude typically varies slowly with energy while the resonant scattering amplitude changes both in magnitude and phase quickly. It is this variation that creates the asymmetric profile.

      The Fano resonance is how increased infrared stimulation of the micro powder increases LENR activity. When DGT removes the hydrogen from their reactor, the Fano resonance is destroyed.

      Fano resonance is like a charger of a capacitor that will continue to load the capacitor until the capacitor is fully loaded. This loading condition occurs when the energy lost from the capacitor equals the input loading energy level of the charger.

    5. Part 2


      More of Black EVs from Ken Slouders

      Figure 5 and 6 on page 4 show how a white EV transforms into a black EV.

      Ken Shoulders states as follows:

      “In order to develop some reality about the appearance of white and black EVs, refer to Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 with each showing a single run of an EV toward a target at the top of the photo. These photos were taken from (1) as Fig. 4:40 and Fig. 4:42 where there is other photos showing similar affects. What can be seen is the white EV coming in from the lower side of the photo and then disappearing from camera view just before striking the target and disintegrating it. The white glob at the top is a plume of ions coming from the explosion.

      This can be validated by applying an analyzing field in the camera that produces a deflection to the left for ions and to the right for electrons. This analysis field has been applied in Fig. 6 and it can be seen that the white EV has moved to the right, signifying its emission products are electrons, while the ion plume moves to the left. The fact is, there is an omission of both electronic and optical traces during the black phase of the EV run

      This is not an artifact of the measurement method because there are many examples where multiple cameras and visual observation showed such a disappearance.

      In the black state, there is no ability to ionize gas or to excite fluorescence from the nearby dielectric materials whereas there is with a white EV.

      Unidirectional Current Flow:

      Under the conditions of white and black EV looping as stated above, there is an electrical peculiarity worth noting. The current flows in only the white EV direction thus giving the basic conditions for magnetic field generation without closing the current loop. The return charge flows around the other half of the loop without being registered in our instruments. This might be the basis for predicting something like a magnetic monopole.

      Under the conditions stated, it is possible to detect the vector potential, Ā, outside of the current loop usually used to define the vector potential habitat. This offers a communication method that is not shielded by conventional conductors because the electrons in the conductor are not excited into generating a mirror image. One must wonder what other electrons we are working with is also not excited by this unusual method of generating longitudinal emanations or potentials.”

      The black EV is produced by polariton creation.

      Of note Shoulders states:

      In the black state, there is no ability to ionize gas or to excite fluorescence from the nearby dielectric materials whereas there is with a white EV.

      From figure 5, it can be seen that the condensed vapors of the metal target take some short time to form nano-particles.

      In the Black EV state electrons are converted to polaritons when the electrons of the white EV, the infrared EMF from the spark discharge, and the condensed nano-particle combined to form these polaritons. The infrared radiation of the spark explosion helps produce the polariton plume through the action of Fano interference.

    6. Part3

      Shoulders remarks continue:

      The fact is, there is an omission of both electronic and optical traces during the black phase of the EV run.

      Under the conditions of white and black EV looping as stated above, there is an electrical peculiarity worth noting.

      The current flows in only the white EV direction thus giving the basic conditions for magnetic field generation without closing the current loop. The return charge flows around the other half of the loop without being registered in our instruments. This might be the basis for predicting something like a magnetic monopole.

      No. this results from polariton production, Ken.

      And finally:

      The kinetic energy of an electron or group of electrons cannot match or exceed the power of hot fusion devices like ITER or the national fusion facility.

      The answer is not to be found in kinetic energy or the related relativistic speed of electrons.

      An arching electron will produce nano-particles when it deposits it kinetic energy on a metal surface.

      I believe that the dark modes that Ken Shoulders sees in his experiments are due to nano-particle generation when metal that is vaporized by the kinetic energy of electrons.

      Ken Shoulders states as follows:

      The EV makes a streak of light as it travels across the surface of the dielectric, and imparts a localized surface charge. Unless this charge is dispersed, it will cause the next EV to follow another path. A witness plate of metal foil may be positioned to intercept the EVs, and will sustain visible damage from their impact. The foil thus serves to detect and locate the entities even if they are invisible ("black EVs").

      Black EVs are produced by Fano resonance of nano-particles produced by the condensation of metal vapor in concert with light radiation produced by the EV.

      Polaritons are thereby formed to resolve the EMF discharge into dark modes of EMF radiation.

      Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering act in concert with Fano resonance to turn the EMF of the spark inward into a local EMF focus where charge concentration is manifest.

      This is what a nuclear active environment looks like. It is a black hole of intense EMF.

      Figure 18 in this reference shows micro/nano particle production

      Nuclear transmutation is shown in figure 19.

      Notice that almost all of the transmutation is caused by fission as a result of the disruption of the strong force by huge anapole magnetic fields.

  4. Act 1, Scene 5, Page 8,
    "...There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than you’ve even dreamed of..."

    William Shakespeare's "Hamlet"


    1. Yes, then the situation was really complex and difficult to understand. Fortunately txonomy made great progresses-
      see for exmaple the classification of Borges- encouraging for Horatio.

  5. Dear Peter

    The email from Yiannis states that the experimental setup for the broadcast on July 22nd was the same during the demonstration of July 23rd. But there is a significant difference: the broadcast on the 22nd showed a large storage tank connected to the output water pipe.

    A number of people have pointed out that the water flow measurement is a possible source of error, and that measuring output water volume would dissipate any doubts. The presence of this tank indicates that DGT has carried out such measurement during experiments.

    Of course, DGT is a private company and they have the right to choose which information they are willing to disseminate. But if indeed DGT has validated the flow meter measurements it seems disclosing the results can only help their credibility.

    Given that you have a close and friendly relationship with the company, perhaps you could raise the question with them.


  6. As a matter of fact, the ultrasonic crusher is sometimes called as the ultrasonic cell grinder that is a use of strong ultrasonic cavitation generated in the liquid. See here: .Meanwhile, this may be multifunctional ultrasonic treatment.